BETA


2015/2656(RSP) Resolution on the accession of Ecuador to the Trade Agreement concluded between the EU and its Member States and Colombia and Peru

Progress: Procedure completed

RoleCommitteeRapporteurShadows
Lead INTA SCHOLZ Helmut (icon: GUE/NGL GUE/NGL) FISAS AYXELÀ Santiago (icon: PPE PPE), LANGE Bernd (icon: S&D S&D), ZAHRADIL Jan (icon: ECR ECR), TREMOSA I BALCELLS Ramon (icon: ALDE ALDE), KELLER Ska (icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE)
Lead committee dossier:
Legal Basis:
RoP 132-p2

Events

2016/04/05
   EC - Commission response to text adopted in plenary
Documents
2015/11/26
   EP - Results of vote in Parliament
2015/11/26
   EP - Decision by Parliament, 1st reading/single reading
Details

The European Parliament adopted by 499 votes to 61, with 86 abstentions, a resolution prepared by the Committee on International Trade on the accession of Ecuador to the Trade Agreement concluded between the EU and its Member States and Colombia and Peru.

Members welcomed the conclusion of the negotiations with Ecuador on the protocol for its accession to the Trade Agreement between the EU, Colombia and Peru, recognising the important benefits that this will bring for Ecuador’s exports to the EU.

They recalled that, before giving its consent to the Trade Agreement on 11 December 2012, Parliament called on the Andean countries, in its aforementioned resolution of 13 June 2012 , to ensure the establishment of a transparent and binding road map on human, environmental and labour rights, and that the Colombian and Peruvian Governments submitted action plans on sustainable development prior to Parliament giving its consent.

Defending human rights : Members asked the Commission and the EEAS to submit to Parliament a comprehensive report focusing on the measures taken by the Commission through cooperation programmes, in particular in connection with education, training, regulatory cooperation and the creation of socioeconomic opportunities for the most deprived sections of society and fostering progress on democracy, upholding human and workers’ rights and protecting the environment. They also urged the Commission to make full use of the Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI) and the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR) in this connection.

The Government of Ecuador is urged to take note of the action plans submitted by Colombia and Peru and to take similar measures as this is an opportunity to improve the general condition of their citizens’ lives, including human and labour rights and the environment.

For the Parliament, human rights and democracy are essential elements of the overall relationship between the EU and the Andean countries .

Strengthening the economy, social rights and sustainable development : recalling that poverty in Ecuador decreased from 37.6% to 22.5% between 2006 and 2014, while extreme poverty fell from 16.9% to 7.7%, Parliament commended the Ecuadorian Government for having invested over USD 40 billion in the social sector over the past eight years. It noted the major investments made by Ecuador over recent years and reaffirmed support for all legislative and non-legislative action taken by the government and local authorities in Ecuador to combat poverty.

Parliament also drew attention to the EU objective of including a binding trade and sustainable development chapter in all trade agreements concluded with both industrialised and non-industrialised partners. It recalled that the Ecuadorian constitution explicitly recognises the development of fair trade as a key objective of the country’s trade policy.

Members called for a cooperation agreement between Ecuador and the EU in support of specific environmental programmes and welcomes the interest already expressed by the Ecuadorian Government in a cooperation agreement with the EU in support of programmes relating to deforestation . They recalled that the EU-Andean Sustainability Impact Assessment (2009) predicted that deforestation and reduced biodiversity would result from the projected expansion of the agriculture and timber industries.

Defending minorities : Members acknowledged the efforts made by Ecuador to afford better protection to indigenous communities and urged the Ecuadorian Government to make sure that its policies – in particular its mining strategy – do not have an adverse impact on the rights of indigenous communities. They welcomed the fact that Ecuador has ratified ILO Convention No 169 on indigenous and tribal peoples, but noted that the trade agreement does not make any reference to the convention. In parallel, Parliament called on the Ecuadorian Government to further improve the existing domestic mechanisms and dialogue with civil society.

Imports of Ecuadorian bananas : Parliament noted that, alongside Colombia and Peru, Ecuador is one of the world’s top producers of bananas. It called therefore on the Commission to ensure that the trigger import volumes laid down in the stabilisation mechanism for bananas are fairly respected . It asked the Commission to regularly inform Parliament without delay, and in any event when the trend in banana imports is such that it could cause the trigger import volumes to be reached, and to provide details of the direct and indirect impact of banana imports from those countries. The Commission is called upon to suspend the duty exemption on bananas imported from those countries if imports are increasing in a disproportionate manner , causing or threatening to cause serious harm to the economies of the EU producing regions, such as job losses.

Parliament expressed its conviction that safeguard clauses should be established simultaneously by both sides in order to protect national production against import surges that may cause serious harm.

Documents
2015/11/26
   EP - End of procedure in Parliament
2015/11/23
   EP - Debate in Parliament
2015/11/20
   EP - Motion for a resolution
Documents
2015/08/27
   EP - Amendments tabled in committee
Documents
2015/04/14
   EP - SCHOLZ Helmut (GUE/NGL) appointed as rapporteur in INTA

Documents

Activities

Votes

B8-1241/2015 - Considérant A

2015/11/26 Outcome: +: 553, 0: 76, -: 19
DE IT FR PL GB ES RO CZ BE PT AT BG HU SK SE NL HR FI EL LT SI IE DK MT LU LV EE CY
Total
85
62
64
44
59
48
26
19
21
21
17
16
18
13
13
21
11
12
19
9
7
9
6
6
5
5
5
6
icon: PPE PPE
193

Belgium PPE

Against (1)

4
2

Denmark PPE

For (1)

1

Luxembourg PPE

3

Latvia PPE

For (1)

1

Estonia PPE

For (1)

1
icon: S&D S&D
168

Netherlands S&D

2

Croatia S&D

2

Slovenia S&D

For (1)

1

Ireland S&D

For (1)

1

Denmark S&D

2

Malta S&D

3

Latvia S&D

1

Estonia S&D

For (1)

1

Cyprus S&D

2
icon: ALDE ALDE
59

Romania ALDE

2

Austria ALDE

For (1)

1

Bulgaria ALDE

3

Croatia ALDE

2
3

Ireland ALDE

For (1)

1

Denmark ALDE

For (1)

1

Luxembourg ALDE

For (1)

1

Latvia ALDE

1

Estonia ALDE

2
icon: ECR ECR
60

Italy ECR

1

Romania ECR

For (1)

1

Czechia ECR

2

Bulgaria ECR

2

Netherlands ECR

2

Croatia ECR

For (1)

1
2

Greece ECR

Abstain (1)

1

Denmark ECR

2

Latvia ECR

For (1)

1
icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE
42

United Kingdom Verts/ALE

4

Belgium Verts/ALE

2

Austria Verts/ALE

3

Hungary Verts/ALE

2

Sweden Verts/ALE

3

Netherlands Verts/ALE

2

Croatia Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Finland Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Lithuania Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Slovenia Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Luxembourg Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Latvia Verts/ALE

1

Estonia Verts/ALE

For (1)

1
icon: EFDD EFDD
37

France EFDD

1

Poland EFDD

1

Czechia EFDD

Abstain (1)

1

Lithuania EFDD

For (1)

1
icon: NI NI
13

Germany NI

2

France NI

3

Poland NI

Abstain (1)

1

United Kingdom NI

For (1)

1

Hungary NI

2
icon: ENF ENF
32

Poland ENF

Abstain (1)

1

United Kingdom ENF

Abstain (1)

1

Romania ENF

Abstain (1)

1

Belgium ENF

Abstain (1)

1

Netherlands ENF

3
icon: GUE/NGL GUE/NGL
43

Italy GUE/NGL

2

France GUE/NGL

Against (1)

3

United Kingdom GUE/NGL

Against (1)

1

Czechia GUE/NGL

2

Sweden GUE/NGL

Abstain (1)

1

Netherlands GUE/NGL

2

Finland GUE/NGL

Abstain (1)

1

Ireland GUE/NGL

3

Cyprus GUE/NGL

2

B8-1241/2015 - Considérant B

2015/11/26 Outcome: +: 540, 0: 84, -: 18
DE IT FR GB PL ES RO BE PT BG CZ HU AT SK NL SE HR EL FI LT SI IE DK MT LU LV CY EE
Total
85
62
64
58
43
47
26
21
21
16
18
18
17
13
21
13
11
19
11
8
7
9
6
6
5
5
6
5
icon: PPE PPE
191

Belgium PPE

Against (1)

4

Lithuania PPE

1

Denmark PPE

For (1)

1

Luxembourg PPE

3

Latvia PPE

For (1)

1

Estonia PPE

For (1)

1
icon: S&D S&D
168

Netherlands S&D

2

Croatia S&D

2

Slovenia S&D

For (1)

1

Ireland S&D

For (1)

1

Denmark S&D

2

Malta S&D

3

Latvia S&D

1

Cyprus S&D

2

Estonia S&D

For (1)

1
icon: ALDE ALDE
59

Romania ALDE

2

Bulgaria ALDE

3

Austria ALDE

For (1)

1

Croatia ALDE

2
3

Ireland ALDE

For (1)

1

Denmark ALDE

For (1)

1

Luxembourg ALDE

For (1)

1

Latvia ALDE

1

Estonia ALDE

2
icon: ECR ECR
59

Italy ECR

1

Romania ECR

For (1)

1

Bulgaria ECR

2

Czechia ECR

2

Netherlands ECR

2

Croatia ECR

For (1)

1

Greece ECR

Abstain (1)

1
2

Denmark ECR

2

Latvia ECR

For (1)

1
icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE
41

United Kingdom Verts/ALE

4

Belgium Verts/ALE

2

Hungary Verts/ALE

2

Austria Verts/ALE

3

Netherlands Verts/ALE

2

Sweden Verts/ALE

3

Croatia Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Lithuania Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Slovenia Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Luxembourg Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Latvia Verts/ALE

1

Estonia Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1
icon: EFDD EFDD
35

France EFDD

1

Poland EFDD

1

Lithuania EFDD

For (1)

1
icon: NI NI
13

Germany NI

For (1)

Against (1)

2

France NI

3

United Kingdom NI

For (1)

1

Poland NI

Abstain (1)

1

Hungary NI

2
icon: GUE/NGL GUE/NGL
43

Italy GUE/NGL

2

France GUE/NGL

Against (1)

3

United Kingdom GUE/NGL

Abstain (1)

1

Czechia GUE/NGL

2

Netherlands GUE/NGL

Against (1)

Abstain (1)

2

Sweden GUE/NGL

Abstain (1)

1

Finland GUE/NGL

Abstain (1)

1

Ireland GUE/NGL

3

Cyprus GUE/NGL

2
icon: ENF ENF
32

United Kingdom ENF

Abstain (1)

1

Poland ENF

Abstain (1)

1

Romania ENF

Abstain (1)

1

Belgium ENF

Abstain (1)

1

Netherlands ENF

3

B8-1241/2015 - Résolution

2015/11/26 Outcome: +: 499, 0: 86, -: 61
DE IT PL GB ES RO FR PT BG CZ BE SK HU SE NL HR FI AT LT DK MT SI LV LU IE EE CY EL
Total
84
62
43
59
48
26
64
21
16
19
21
13
18
13
21
11
12
17
9
6
6
7
5
5
9
5
6
19
icon: PPE PPE
193

Belgium PPE

Abstain (1)

4
2

Denmark PPE

For (1)

1

Latvia PPE

For (1)

1

Luxembourg PPE

3

Estonia PPE

For (1)

1
icon: S&D S&D
167

Belgium S&D

4

Netherlands S&D

2

Croatia S&D

2

Denmark S&D

2

Malta S&D

3

Slovenia S&D

For (1)

1

Latvia S&D

1

Ireland S&D

For (1)

1

Estonia S&D

For (1)

1

Cyprus S&D

2
icon: ALDE ALDE
59

Romania ALDE

2

Bulgaria ALDE

3

Croatia ALDE

2
3

Austria ALDE

For (1)

1

Denmark ALDE

For (1)

1

Latvia ALDE

1

Luxembourg ALDE

For (1)

1

Ireland ALDE

For (1)

1

Estonia ALDE

2
icon: ECR ECR
59

Italy ECR

1

Romania ECR

For (1)

1

Bulgaria ECR

2

Czechia ECR

2

Netherlands ECR

2

Croatia ECR

For (1)

1
2

Denmark ECR

2

Latvia ECR

For (1)

1

Greece ECR

Against (1)

1
icon: EFDD EFDD
37

Poland EFDD

1

France EFDD

1

Czechia EFDD

Abstain (1)

1

Lithuania EFDD

For (1)

1
icon: NI NI
13

Germany NI

2

Poland NI

Abstain (1)

1

United Kingdom NI

For (1)

1

France NI

3

Hungary NI

2
icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE
42

United Kingdom Verts/ALE

Abstain (2)

4

France Verts/ALE

5

Belgium Verts/ALE

Against (1)

2

Hungary Verts/ALE

Against (1)

Abstain (1)

2

Sweden Verts/ALE

3

Netherlands Verts/ALE

2

Croatia Verts/ALE

Abstain (1)

1

Finland Verts/ALE

Abstain (1)

1

Austria Verts/ALE

Against (1)

3

Lithuania Verts/ALE

Abstain (1)

1

Slovenia Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Latvia Verts/ALE

Abstain (1)

1

Luxembourg Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Estonia Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1
icon: GUE/NGL GUE/NGL
43

Italy GUE/NGL

2

United Kingdom GUE/NGL

Against (1)

1

France GUE/NGL

Against (1)

3

Czechia GUE/NGL

2

Sweden GUE/NGL

Against (1)

1

Netherlands GUE/NGL

Against (1)

Abstain (1)

2

Finland GUE/NGL

Abstain (1)

1

Ireland GUE/NGL

3

Cyprus GUE/NGL

Against (1)

Abstain (1)

2
icon: ENF ENF
32

Poland ENF

Abstain (1)

1

United Kingdom ENF

Against (1)

1

Romania ENF

Against (1)

1

Belgium ENF

Abstain (1)

1

Netherlands ENF

3

History

(these mark the time of scraping, not the official date of the change)

committees/0
type
Responsible Committee
body
EP
committee_full
International Trade
committee
INTA
associated
False
rapporteur
name: SCHOLZ Helmut date: 2015-04-14T00:00:00 group: European United Left - Nordic Green Left abbr: GUE/NGL
shadows
committees/0
type
Responsible Committee
body
EP
committee_full
International Trade
committee
INTA
associated
False
date
2015-04-14T00:00:00
rapporteur
name: SCHOLZ Helmut group: European United Left - Nordic Green Left abbr: GUE/NGL
shadows
docs/1/docs/0/url
Old
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=MOTION&reference=B8-2015-1241&language=EN
New
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/B-8-2015-1241_EN.html
docs/2/body
EC
events/2/docs/0/url
Old
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&language=EN&reference=P8-TA-2015-0416
New
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/TA-8-2015-0416_EN.html
activities
  • date: 2015-11-23T00:00:00 docs: url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?secondRef=TOC&language=EN&reference=20151123&type=CRE type: Debate in Parliament title: Debate in Parliament body: EP type: Debate in Parliament
  • date: 2015-11-26T00:00:00 docs: url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&language=EN&reference=P8-TA-2015-0416 type: Decision by Parliament, 1st reading/single reading title: T8-0416/2015 body: EP type: Decision by Parliament, 1st reading/single reading
commission
  • body: EC dg: Trade commissioner: MALMSTRÖM Cecilia
committees/0
type
Responsible Committee
body
EP
committee_full
International Trade
committee
INTA
associated
False
date
2015-04-14T00:00:00
rapporteur
name: SCHOLZ Helmut group: European United Left - Nordic Green Left abbr: GUE/NGL
shadows
committees/0
body
EP
shadows
responsible
True
committee
INTA
date
2015-04-14T00:00:00
committee_full
International Trade
rapporteur
group: GUE/NGL name: SCHOLZ Helmut
docs
  • date: 2015-08-27T00:00:00 docs: url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=COMPARL&mode=XML&language=EN&reference=PE560.905 title: PE560.905 type: Amendments tabled in committee body: EP
  • date: 2015-11-20T00:00:00 docs: url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=MOTION&reference=B8-2015-1241&language=EN title: B8-1241/2015 type: Motion for a resolution body: EP
  • date: 2016-04-05T00:00:00 docs: url: /oeil/spdoc.do?i=26450&j=0&l=en title: SP(2016)105 type: Commission response to text adopted in plenary
events
  • date: 2015-11-23T00:00:00 type: Debate in Parliament body: EP docs: url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?secondRef=TOC&language=EN&reference=20151123&type=CRE title: Debate in Parliament
  • date: 2015-11-26T00:00:00 type: Results of vote in Parliament body: EP docs: url: https://oeil.secure.europarl.europa.eu/oeil/popups/sda.do?id=26450&l=en title: Results of vote in Parliament
  • date: 2015-11-26T00:00:00 type: Decision by Parliament, 1st reading/single reading body: EP docs: url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&language=EN&reference=P8-TA-2015-0416 title: T8-0416/2015 summary: The European Parliament adopted by 499 votes to 61, with 86 abstentions, a resolution prepared by the Committee on International Trade on the accession of Ecuador to the Trade Agreement concluded between the EU and its Member States and Colombia and Peru. Members welcomed the conclusion of the negotiations with Ecuador on the protocol for its accession to the Trade Agreement between the EU, Colombia and Peru, recognising the important benefits that this will bring for Ecuador’s exports to the EU. They recalled that, before giving its consent to the Trade Agreement on 11 December 2012, Parliament called on the Andean countries, in its aforementioned resolution of 13 June 2012 , to ensure the establishment of a transparent and binding road map on human, environmental and labour rights, and that the Colombian and Peruvian Governments submitted action plans on sustainable development prior to Parliament giving its consent. Defending human rights : Members asked the Commission and the EEAS to submit to Parliament a comprehensive report focusing on the measures taken by the Commission through cooperation programmes, in particular in connection with education, training, regulatory cooperation and the creation of socioeconomic opportunities for the most deprived sections of society and fostering progress on democracy, upholding human and workers’ rights and protecting the environment. They also urged the Commission to make full use of the Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI) and the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR) in this connection. The Government of Ecuador is urged to take note of the action plans submitted by Colombia and Peru and to take similar measures as this is an opportunity to improve the general condition of their citizens’ lives, including human and labour rights and the environment. For the Parliament, human rights and democracy are essential elements of the overall relationship between the EU and the Andean countries . Strengthening the economy, social rights and sustainable development : recalling that poverty in Ecuador decreased from 37.6% to 22.5% between 2006 and 2014, while extreme poverty fell from 16.9% to 7.7%, Parliament commended the Ecuadorian Government for having invested over USD 40 billion in the social sector over the past eight years. It noted the major investments made by Ecuador over recent years and reaffirmed support for all legislative and non-legislative action taken by the government and local authorities in Ecuador to combat poverty. Parliament also drew attention to the EU objective of including a binding trade and sustainable development chapter in all trade agreements concluded with both industrialised and non-industrialised partners. It recalled that the Ecuadorian constitution explicitly recognises the development of fair trade as a key objective of the country’s trade policy. Members called for a cooperation agreement between Ecuador and the EU in support of specific environmental programmes and welcomes the interest already expressed by the Ecuadorian Government in a cooperation agreement with the EU in support of programmes relating to deforestation . They recalled that the EU-Andean Sustainability Impact Assessment (2009) predicted that deforestation and reduced biodiversity would result from the projected expansion of the agriculture and timber industries. Defending minorities : Members acknowledged the efforts made by Ecuador to afford better protection to indigenous communities and urged the Ecuadorian Government to make sure that its policies – in particular its mining strategy – do not have an adverse impact on the rights of indigenous communities. They welcomed the fact that Ecuador has ratified ILO Convention No 169 on indigenous and tribal peoples, but noted that the trade agreement does not make any reference to the convention. In parallel, Parliament called on the Ecuadorian Government to further improve the existing domestic mechanisms and dialogue with civil society. Imports of Ecuadorian bananas : Parliament noted that, alongside Colombia and Peru, Ecuador is one of the world’s top producers of bananas. It called therefore on the Commission to ensure that the trigger import volumes laid down in the stabilisation mechanism for bananas are fairly respected . It asked the Commission to regularly inform Parliament without delay, and in any event when the trend in banana imports is such that it could cause the trigger import volumes to be reached, and to provide details of the direct and indirect impact of banana imports from those countries. The Commission is called upon to suspend the duty exemption on bananas imported from those countries if imports are increasing in a disproportionate manner , causing or threatening to cause serious harm to the economies of the EU producing regions, such as job losses. Parliament expressed its conviction that safeguard clauses should be established simultaneously by both sides in order to protect national production against import surges that may cause serious harm.
  • date: 2015-11-26T00:00:00 type: End of procedure in Parliament body: EP
links
other
  • body: EC dg: url: http://ec.europa.eu/trade/ title: Trade commissioner: MALMSTRÖM Cecilia
procedure/dossier_of_the_committee
Old
INTA/8/03260
New
  • INTA/8/03260
procedure/legal_basis/0
Rules of Procedure EP 132-p2
procedure/legal_basis/0
Rules of Procedure of the European Parliament EP 123-p2
procedure/subject
Old
  • 6.20.03 Bilateral economic and trade agreements and relations
New
6.20.03
Bilateral economic and trade agreements and relations
procedure/subtype
Old
Resolution on statements
New
Resolution on statement
activities/1
date
2015-11-26T00:00:00
docs
url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&language=EN&reference=P8-TA-2015-0416 type: Decision by Parliament, 1st reading/single reading title: T8-0416/2015
body
EP
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Decision by Parliament, 1st reading/single reading
procedure/stage_reached
Old
Awaiting Parliament 1st reading / single reading / budget 1st stage
New
Procedure completed
activities/1
date
2015-11-26T00:00:00
body
EP
type
Vote in plenary scheduled
procedure/title
Old
Accession of Ecuador to the EU/Peru and Colombia trade agreement
New
Resolution on the accession of Ecuador to the Trade Agreement concluded between the EU and its Member States and Colombia and Peru
activities/0/docs
  • url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?secondRef=TOC&language=EN&reference=20151123&type=CRE type: Debate in Parliament title: Debate in Parliament
activities/0/type
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Debate scheduled
New
Debate in Parliament
activities/0/type
Old
Debate in plenary scheduled
New
Debate scheduled
activities
  • date: 2015-11-23T00:00:00 body: EP type: Debate in plenary scheduled
  • date: 2015-11-26T00:00:00 body: EP type: Vote in plenary scheduled
committees
  • body: EP shadows: group: EPP name: FISAS AYXELÀ Santiago group: S&D name: LANGE Bernd group: ECR name: ZAHRADIL Jan group: ALDE name: TREMOSA I BALCELLS Ramon group: Verts/ALE name: KELLER Ska responsible: True committee: INTA date: 2015-04-14T00:00:00 committee_full: International Trade rapporteur: group: GUE/NGL name: SCHOLZ Helmut
links
other
  • body: EC dg: url: http://ec.europa.eu/trade/ title: Trade commissioner: MALMSTRÖM Cecilia
procedure
dossier_of_the_committee
INTA/8/03260
geographical_area
Ecuador
reference
2015/2656(RSP)
title
Accession of Ecuador to the EU/Peru and Colombia trade agreement
legal_basis
Rules of Procedure of the European Parliament EP 123-p2
stage_reached
Awaiting Parliament 1st reading / single reading / budget 1st stage
subtype
Resolution on statements
type
RSP - Resolutions on topical subjects
subject
6.20.03 Bilateral economic and trade agreements and relations