BETA


2021/0106(COD) Artificial Intelligence Act

Progress: Awaiting Council's 1st reading position

RoleCommitteeRapporteurShadows
Joint Responsible Committee ['IMCO', 'LIBE'] BENIFEI Brando (icon: S&D S&D), TUDORACHE Dragoş (icon: Renew Renew) CLUNE Deirdre (icon: EPP EPP), VOSS Axel (icon: EPP EPP), VITANOV Petar (icon: S&D S&D), HAHN Svenja (icon: Renew Renew), LAGODINSKY Sergey (icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE), VAN SPARRENTAK Kim (icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE), LACAPELLE Jean-Lin (icon: ID ID), MADISON Jaak (icon: ID ID), ROOKEN Rob (icon: ECR ECR), ZŁOTOWSKI Kosma (icon: ECR ECR), ERNST Cornelia (icon: GUE/NGL GUE/NGL), KONEČNÁ Kateřina (icon: GUE/NGL GUE/NGL)
Committee Opinion ENVI SOLÍS PÉREZ Susana (icon: Renew Renew) Deirdre CLUNE (icon: PPE PPE), Joanna KOPCIŃSKA (icon: ECR ECR), César LUENA (icon: S&D S&D)
Committee Opinion ITRE MAYDELL Eva (icon: EPP EPP) Miapetra KUMPULA-NATRI (icon: S&D S&D), Jordi SOLÉ (icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE), Gianna GANCIA (icon: ID ID), Robert ROOS (icon: ECR ECR), Elena KOUNTOURA (icon: GUE/NGL GUE/NGL), Nicola BEER (icon: RE RE)
Committee Opinion TRAN CUTAJAR Josianne (icon: S&D S&D) Elsi KATAINEN (icon: RE RE), Kateřina KONEČNÁ (icon: GUE/NGL GUE/NGL), Kosma ZŁOTOWSKI (icon: ECR ECR), Jörgen WARBORN (icon: PPE PPE), Alviina ALAMETSÄ (icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE)
Committee Opinion CULT KOLAJA Marcel (icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE) Martina MICHELS (icon: GUE/NGL GUE/NGL), Loucas FOURLAS (icon: PPE PPE), Ibán GARCÍA DEL BLANCO (icon: S&D S&D), Alessandro PANZA (icon: ID ID), Vlad-Marius BOTOŞ (icon: RE RE), Dace MELBĀRDE (icon: ECR ECR)
Committee Opinion JURI VOSS Axel (icon: EPP EPP) Gilles LEBRETON (icon: ID ID), Emmanuel MAUREL (icon: GUE/NGL GUE/NGL), Kosma ZŁOTOWSKI (icon: ECR ECR), Sergey LAGODINSKY (icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE), Ibán GARCÍA DEL BLANCO (icon: S&D S&D), Karen MELCHIOR (icon: RE RE)
Lead committee dossier:
Legal Basis:
RoP 57, RoP 58, TFEU 016-p2, TFEU 114

Events

2024/03/13
   EP - Decision by Parliament, 1st reading
Details

The European Parliament adopted by 523 votes to 46, with 49 abstentions, a legislative resolution on the proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on laying down harmonised rules on Artificial Intelligence (Artificial Intelligence Act) and amending certain Union Legislative Acts.

The European Parliament's position adopted at first reading under the ordinary legislative procedure amends the proposal as follows:

Subject matter

The purpose of this Regulation is to improve the functioning of the internal market and promote the uptake of human-centric and trustworthy artificial intelligence (AI), while ensuring a high level of protection of health, safety, fundamental rights enshrined in the Charter of Fundamental Rights, including democracy, the rule of law and environmental protection, against the harmful effects of artificial intelligence systems (AI systems) in the Union, and to support innovation.

This Regulation does not apply to AI systems or AI models, including their output, specifically developed and put into service for the sole purpose of scientific research and development.

Regulatory sandboxes and real-world testing will have to be established at the national level, and made accessible to SMEs and start-ups, to develop and train innovative AI before its placement on the market.

This Regulation applies to AI systems released under free and open source licences, unless they are placed on the market or put into service as high-risk AI systems.

AI literacy

Providers and deployers of AI systems shall take measures to ensure, to their best extent, a sufficient level of AI literacy of their staff and other persons dealing with the operation and use of AI systems on their behalf, taking into account their technical knowledge, experience, education and training and the context the AI systems are to be used in, and considering the persons or groups of persons on whom the AI systems are to be used.

Prohibited AI Practices

The new rules prohibit the following AI practices:

- AI system that deploys subliminal techniques beyond a person’s consciousness or purposefully manipulative or deceptive techniques, with the objective, or the effect of, materially distorting the behaviour of a person or a group of persons by appreciably impairing their ability to make an informed decision, thereby causing a person to take a decision that that person would not have otherwise taken;

- AI system that exploits any of the vulnerabilities of a person or a specific group of persons due to their age, disability or a specific social or economic situation , with the objective, or the effect, of materially distorting the behaviour of that person;

- AI systems with social scores (classification of natural persons based on their social behaviour or known, inferred or predicted personal or personality characteristics);

- AI system for making risk assessments of natural persons in order to assess or predict the likelihood of a natural person committing a criminal offence, based solely on the profiling of a natural person or on assessing their personality traits and characteristics;

- AI systems that create or expand facial recognition databases through the untargeted scraping of facial images from the internet or CCTV footage;

- AI systems to infer emotions of a natural person in the areas of workplace and education institutions, except where the use of the AI system is intended to be put in place or into the market for medical or safety reasons;

- biometric categorisation systems that categorise individually natural persons based on their biometric data to deduce or infer their race, political opinions, trade union membership, religious or philosophical beliefs, sex life or sexual orientation;

- ‘real-time’ remote biometric identification systems in publicly accessible spaces for the purposes of law enforcement , unless and in so far as such use is strictly necessary for one of the following objectives: (i) the targeted search for specific victims of abduction, trafficking in human beings or sexual exploitation of human beings, as well as searching for missing persons; (ii) the prevention of a genuine threat of a terrorist attack; (iii) the identification of a person suspected of having committed a criminal offence, for the purpose of conducting a criminal investigation, prosecution or executing a criminal penalty for offences punishable by a custodial sentence of a maximum duration of at least four years.

The use of the real-time remote biometric identification system in publicly accessible spaces should be authorised only if the relevant law enforcement authority has completed a fundamental rights impact assessment . In addition, their use remains limited to what is strictly necessary concerning the period of time as well as the geographic and personal scope. In any case, no decision producing an adverse legal effect on a person should be taken based solely on the output of the remote biometric identification system.

Obligations for high-risk systems

The Regulation lays down clear obligations are also foreseen for other high-risk AI systems (due to their significant potential harm to health, safety, fundamental rights, environment, democracy and the rule of law).

The following have been added to the list of high-risk systems, in particular, systems intended to be used:

- as safety components in the management and operation of critical digital infrastructure , road traffic and the supply of water, gas, heating and electricity;

- to determine the access, admission or assignment of individuals to educational and vocational training establishments , at all levels;

- for the recruitment or selection of natural persons, in particular for publishing targeted job offers , analysing and filtering applications and evaluating candidates;

- to assess the eligibility of individuals for essential social security benefits and services, including healthcare services;

- for risk assessment and pricing of life and health insurance for individuals;

- in the context of migration, asylum and border control management , for the purposes of detecting, recognising or identifying natural persons;

- to influence the outcome of an election or referendum or the electoral behaviour of natural persons in the exercise of their vote.

Such systems must assess and reduce risks, maintain use logs, be transparent and accurate, and ensure human oversight. Citizens will have a right to submit complaints about AI systems and receive explanations about decisions based on high-risk AI systems that affect their rights.

General-purpose AI (GPAI)

General-purpose AI systems, and the GPAI models such as ChatGPT they are based on, must meet certain transparency requirements including compliance with EU copyright law and publishing detailed summaries of the content used for training. The more powerful GPAI models that could pose systemic risks will face additional requirements, including performing model evaluations, assessing and mitigating systemic risks, and reporting on incidents.

Additionally, artificial or manipulated images, audio or video content (“deepfakes”) need to be clearly labelled as such.

Documents
2024/03/12
   EP - Debate in Parliament
2024/02/13
   EP - Approval in committee of the text agreed at 1st reading interinstitutional negotiations
Documents
2024/02/02
   CSL - Coreper letter confirming interinstitutional agreement
2024/02/02
   EP - Text agreed during interinstitutional negotiations
Documents
2023/06/14
   EP - Results of vote in Parliament
2023/06/14
   EP - Decision by Parliament, 1st reading
Details

The European Parliament adopted, by 499 votes to 28 with 93 abstentions, amendments to the proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council laying down harmonised rules on artificial intelligence (artificial intelligence act) and amending certain Union legislative acts.

The matter was referred back to the committee responsible for inter-institutional negotiations.

Purpose

The regulation lays down a uniform legal framework in particular for the development, the placing on the market, the putting into service and the use of artificial intelligence in conformity with Union values. Its aim is to promote the uptake of human centric and trustworthy artificial intelligence and to ensure a high level of protection of health, safety, fundamental rights, democracy and rule of law and the environment from harmful effects of artificial intelligence systems in the Union.

Supporting innovation

To boost AI innovation and support SMEs, Members added exemptions for research activities and AI components provided under open-source licenses. The new law promotes so-called regulatory sandboxes , or real-life environments, established by public authorities to test AI before it is deployed.

General principles applicable to all AI systems

All operators covered by the Regulation should make every effort to develop and use AI or general purpose AI systems in accordance with the following general principles: (i) ‘human agency and oversight’; (ii) ‘technical robustness and safety’; (iii) ‘privacy and data governance’; (iv) ‘transparency’; (v) ‘diversity, non-discrimination and fairness’; and (vi) ‘social and environmental well-being’.

AI literacy

When implementing the regulation, the Union and the Member States should promote measures for the development of a sufficient level of AI literacy, across sectors and taking into account the different needs of groups of providers, deployers and affected persons concerned, including through education and training, skilling and reskilling programmes and while ensuring proper gender and age balance, in view of allowing a democratic control of AI systems.

Prohibition of AI practices

AI systems posing an unacceptable level of risk to personal safety will be prohibited. Members expanded the list to include bans on intrusive and discriminatory uses of AI, such as:

- systems that use subliminal techniques or deliberately manipulative or deceptive techniques , with the aim of substantially distorting a person’s or a group of persons’ behaviour by appreciably impairing the person’s ability to make an informed decision, thereby causing the person to take a decision that that person would not have otherwise taken in a manner that causes or is likely to cause that person, another person or group of persons significant harm;

- systems which exploit the possible vulnerabilities of a given person or group of persons, in particular known or predictable personality traits or the social or economic situation, age, physical or mental capacity of that person or group of persons, with the aim or effect of substantially altering that person's behaviour;

- placing on the market, putting into service or use of biometric categorisation systems that categorise natural persons according to sensitive or protected attributes (e.g. gender, race, ethnic origin, citizenship status, religion, political orientation), or characteristics or based on the inference of those attributes or characteristics;

- systems used for social rating (classifying people according to their social behaviour or personality characteristics);

- the use of ‘real-time’ remote biometric identification systems in publicly accessible areas;

- predictive policing systems (based on profiling, location or past criminal behaviour);

- emotion recognition systems in law enforcement, border management, the workplace, and educational institutions; and

- untargeted scraping of facial images from the internet or CCTV footage to create facial recognition databases (violating human rights and right to privacy).

- emotion recognition systems used in law enforcement, border management, the workplace and educational establishments;

- ‘post’ remote biometric identification systems , with the only exception of law enforcement for the prosecution of serious crimes and only after judicial authorisation.

The following have been added to the list of high-risk systems:

- systems intended to be used as security components in the management and operation of the supply of water, gas, heating, electricity and critical digital infrastructures;

- systems intended to be used to assess the appropriate level of education of an individual and which substantially influence the level of education and vocational training from which that individual will benefit or to which he or she will have access;

- systems intended to be used to monitor and detect prohibited behaviour in students during tests in the context of, or within, education and training institutions;

- systems intended to be used to make or substantially influence decisions on the eligibility of natural persons for health and life insurance;

- systems intended to evaluate and classify emergency calls from individuals;

- AI systems intended to be used by public authorities in the management of migration, asylum and border controls to process, control and verify data for the purpose of detecting, recognising and identifying natural persons;

- systems intended to be used to influence the outcome of an election or referendum or the voting behaviour of individuals in the exercise of their vote in elections or referendums;

- AI systems used in recommender systems operated by major social media platforms.

Obligations for general purpose AI

Generative AI systems based on such models, like ChatGPT, would have to comply with transparency requirements (disclosing that the content was AI-generated, also helping distinguish so-called deep-fake images from real ones) and ensure safeguards against generating illegal content. Detailed summaries of the copyrighted data used for their training would also have to be made publicly available.

AI Office

The proposal establishes the AI Office, which should be an independent body of the Union. It is proposed that it should be based in Brussels. Its tasks should include the following:

- support, advise and cooperate with Member States, national supervisory authorities, the Commission and other Union institutions, bodies, offices or agencies on the implementation of this Regulation;

- monitor and ensure the effective and consistent application of the Regulation;

- contribute to the coordination between the national supervisory authorities responsible for the application of the Regulation;

- mediate in discussions on serious disagreements which may arise between competent authorities concerning the application of the Regulation;

- coordinate joint investigations.

The IA office should be accountable to the European Parliament and the Council, act independently and ensure a high level of transparency.

Right to lodge a complaint with a national supervisory authority

Every natural persons or groups of natural persons will have the right to lodge a complaint with a national supervisory authority if they consider that the AI system relating to him or her infringes this Regulation. Lastly, Members want to boost citizens’ right to file complaints about AI systems and receive explanations of decisions based on high-risk AI systems that significantly impact their fundamental rights and socio-economic well-being.

Documents
2023/06/14
   EP - Matter referred back to the committee responsible
2023/06/13
   EP - Debate in Parliament
2023/05/22
   EP - Committee report tabled for plenary, 1st reading
Details

The Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection and the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs adopted the joint report by Brando BENIFEI (S&D, IT) and Dragoş TUDORACHE (Renew, RO) on the proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on laying down harmonised rules on Artificial Intelligence (Artificial Intelligence Act) and amending certain Union Legislative Acts.

Given the major impact that artificial intelligence can have on society and the need to build trust, it is vital for artificial intelligence and its regulatory framework to be developed according to Union values enshrined in Article 2 TEU, the fundamental rights and freedoms enshrined in the Treaties, the Charter, and international human rights law.

Purpose

The purpose of the proposed regulation is to promote the uptake of human centric and trustworthy artificial intelligence and to ensure a high level of protection of health, safety, fundamental rights, democracy and rule of law and the environment from harmful effects of artificial intelligence systems in the Union. It lays down a uniform legal framework in particular for the development, the placing on the market, the putting into service and the use of artificial intelligence in conformity with Union values and ensures the free movement of AI-based goods and services cross-border, thus preventing Member States from imposing restrictions on the development, marketing and use of Artificial Intelligence systems (AI) systems, unless explicitly authorised by this Regulation. Certain AI systems can also have an impact on democracy and rule of law and the environment. These concerns are specifically addressed in the critical sectors and use cases listed in the annexes to this Regulation.

The amended text stipulates that the regulation should preserve the values of the Union facilitating the distribution of artificial intelligence benefits across society, protecting individuals, companies, democracy and rule of law and the environment from risks while boosting innovation and employment and making the Union a leader in the field.

General principles applicable to all AI systems

All operators covered by the Regulation should make every effort to develop and use AI or general purpose AI systems in accordance with the following general principles: (i) ‘human agency and oversight’; (ii) ‘technical robustness and safety’; (iii) ‘privacy and data governance’; (iv) ‘transparency’; (v) ‘diversity, non-discrimination and fairness’; and (vi) ‘social and environmental well-being’.

Scope

To support research and innovation, the regulation should not undermine research and development activity and respect freedom of scientific research. It is therefore necessary to exclude from its scope AI systems specifically developed for the sole purpose of scientific research and development and to ensure that the regulation does not otherwise affect scientific research and development activity on AI systems.

Members also added exemptions for research activities and AI components provided under open-source licenses. The new law promotes regulatory sandboxes, or controlled environments, established by public authorities to test AI before its deployment.

AI literacy

Members stressed that when implementing the proposed regulation, the Union and the Member States should promote measures for the development of a sufficient level of AI literacy, across sectors and taking into account the different needs of groups of providers, deployers and affected persons concerned, including through education and training, skilling and reskilling programmes and while ensuring proper gender and age balance, in view of allowing a democratic control of AI systems.

High-risk AI

Members expanded the classification of high-risk areas to include harm to people’s health, safety, fundamental rights or the environment. They also added AI systems to influence voters in political campaigns and in recommender systems used by social media platforms (with more than 45 million users under the Digital Services Act) to the high-risk list.

Members also added the following bans such as:

- ‘real-time’ remote biometric identification systems in publicly accessible spaces;

- ‘post” remote biometric identification systems, with the only exception of law enforcement for the prosecution of serious crimes and only after judicial authorisation;

- biometric categorisation systems using sensitive characteristics (e.g. gender, race, ethnicity, citizenship status, religion, political orientation);

- predictive policing systems (based on profiling, location or past criminal behaviour);

- emotion recognition systems in law enforcement, border management, workplace, and educational institutions; and

- indiscriminate scraping of biometric data from social media or CCTV footage to create facial recognition databases (violating human rights and right to privacy).

The European Artificial Intelligence Office

The proposal establishes the ‘European Artificial Intelligence Office’ which should be an independent body of the Union. It is proposed that its seat be in Brussels.

It should carry out, inter alia , the following tasks:

- support, advise, and cooperate with Member States, national supervisory authorities, the Commission and other Union institutions, bodies, offices and agencies with regard to the implementation of this Regulation;

- promote public awareness and understanding of the benefits, risks, safeguards and rights and obligations in relation to the use of AI systems;

- facilitate the development of common criteria and a shared understanding among market operators and competent authorities of the relevant concepts provided for in this Regulation;

- provide monitoring of foundation models and to organise a regular dialogue with the developers of foundation models with regard to their compliance as well as AI systems that make use of such AI models.

The AI Office should be accountable to the European Parliament and to the Council; act independently and ensure a high level of transparency.

EU database for high-risk AI systems

The amended text stressed that the Commission should, in collaboration with the Member States, set up and maintain a public EU database containing information concerning high-risk AI systems. Information contained in the EU database should be freely available to the public.

Documents
2023/05/11
   EP - Vote in committee, 1st reading
2023/04/03
   FR_SENATE - Contribution
Documents
2022/09/12
   EP - Committee opinion
Documents
2022/07/12
   EP - Committee opinion
Documents
2022/06/16
   EP - Committee opinion
Documents
2022/06/14
   EP - Committee opinion
Documents
2022/06/10
   EP - Amendments tabled in committee
Documents
2022/06/10
   EP - Amendments tabled in committee
Documents
2022/06/10
   EP - Amendments tabled in committee
Documents
2022/06/10
   EP - Amendments tabled in committee
Documents
2022/06/10
   EP - Amendments tabled in committee
Documents
2022/06/10
   EP - Amendments tabled in committee
Documents
2022/06/10
   EP - Amendments tabled in committee
Documents
2022/06/10
   EP - Amendments tabled in committee
Documents
2022/06/10
   EP - Amendments tabled in committee
Documents
2022/04/22
   EP - Committee opinion
Documents
2022/04/20
   EP - Committee draft report
Documents
2022/01/11
   EP - MAYDELL Eva (EPP) appointed as rapporteur in ITRE
2022/01/10
   EP - VOSS Axel (EPP) appointed as rapporteur in JURI
2021/12/29
   ECB - European Central Bank: opinion, guideline, report
2021/12/16
   EP - Referral to associated committees announced in Parliament
2021/12/16
   EP - Referral to joint committee announced in Parliament
2021/12/01
   EP - BENIFEI Brando (S&D) appointed as rapporteur in ['IMCO', 'LIBE']
2021/12/01
   EP - TUDORACHE Dragoş (Renew) appointed as rapporteur in ['IMCO', 'LIBE']
2021/11/04
   EP - CUTAJAR Josianne (S&D) appointed as rapporteur in TRAN
2021/10/11
   PL_SENATE - Contribution
Documents
2021/09/29
   DE_BUNDESRAT - Contribution
Documents
2021/09/15
   EP - SOLÍS PÉREZ Susana (Renew) appointed as rapporteur in ENVI
2021/07/28
   CZ_SENATE - Contribution
Documents
2021/07/23
   PT_PARLIAMENT - Contribution
Documents
2021/07/13
   EP - KOLAJA Marcel (Verts/ALE) appointed as rapporteur in CULT
2021/06/11
   CZ_CHAMBER - Contribution
Documents
2021/06/07
   EP - Committee referral announced in Parliament, 1st reading
2021/04/22
   EC - Document attached to the procedure
2021/04/22
   EC - Document attached to the procedure
Documents
2021/04/22
   EC - Document attached to the procedure
2021/04/21
   EC - Legislative proposal published
Details

PURPOSE: to lay down a uniform legal framework in particular for the development, marketing and use of artificial intelligence in conformity with EU values (Artificial Intelligence Act).

PROPOSED ACT: Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council.

ROLE OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT: the European Parliament decides in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure and on an equal footing with the Council.

BACKGROUND: faced with the rapid technological development of AI and a global policy context where more and more countries are investing heavily in AI, the EU must act as one to address challenges of AI. It is in the EU's interest to be a world leader in the development of human-centred, sustainable, safe, ethical and trustworthy artificial intelligence .

Some Member States have already explored the adoption of national rules to ensure that artificial intelligence is safe and is developed and used in compliance with fundamental rights obligations. Differing national rules may lead to fragmentation of the internal market and decrease legal certainty for operators that develop or use AI systems. A consistent and high level of protection throughout the EU should therefore be ensured.

Following on from the White Paper on AI - "A European Approach to Excellence and Trust", the legislative proposal aims to ensure a high and consistent level of protection across the EU.

The European Parliament resolution on a framework for ethical aspects of artificial intelligence, robotics and related technologies specifically recommends that the Commission propose legislative measures to exploit the opportunities and benefits of AI, but also to ensure the protection of ethical principles.

CONTENT: against this background, the Commission presents the proposed regulatory framework on Artificial Intelligence with the following specific objectives:

- ensure that AI systems placed on the Union market and used are safe and respect existing law on fundamental rights and Union values;

- ensure legal certainty to facilitate investment and innovation in AI;

- enhance governance and effective enforcement of existing law on fundamental rights and safety requirements applicable to AI systems;

- facilitate the development of a single market for lawful, safe and trustworthy AI applications and prevent market fragmentation.

In order to achieve these objectives, the proposal lays down the following:

Harmonised risk-based approach

The proposal sets harmonised rules for the development, placement on the market and use of AI systems in the Union following a proportionate risk-based approach. It proposes a single future-proof definition of AI.

The risk-based approach differentiates between uses of AI that create:

Unacceptable risk

AI systems considered a clear threat to the safety, livelihoods and rights of people will be banned. This includes AI systems or applications that manipulate human behaviour to circumvent users' free will (e.g. toys using voice assistance encouraging dangerous behaviour of minors) and systems that allow ‘social scoring' by governments.

Specific restrictions and safeguards are proposed in relation to certain uses of remote biometric identification systems for the purpose of law enforcement.

High-risk

AI systems identified as high-risk include AI technology used in, inter alia:

- critical infrastructures (e.g. transport), that could put the life and health of citizens at risk;

- educational or vocational training, that may determine the access to education and professional course of someone's life (e.g. scoring of exams);

- safety components of products (e.g. AI application in robot-assisted surgery);

- law enforcement that may interfere with people's fundamental rights (e.g. evaluation of the reliability of evidence);

- migration, asylum and border control management (e.g. verification of authenticity of travel documents).

The proposal sets out the legal requirements for high-risk AI systems in relation to data and data governance, documentation and recording keeping, transparency and provision of information to users, human oversight, robustness, accuracy and security.

Low-risk

This proposal allows the free use of applications such as AI-enabled video games or spam filters. The vast majority of AI systems fall into this category. The draft Regulation does not intervene here, as these AI systems represent only minimal or no risk for citizens' rights or safety.

Governance

The Commission proposes that national competent market surveillance authorities supervise the new rules, while the creation of a European Artificial Intelligence Board will facilitate their implementation, as well as drive the development of standards for AI. In addition, voluntary codes of conduct are proposed for non-high-risk AI, as well as regulatory sandboxes to facilitate responsible innovation.

Market monitoring and surveillance

The Commission will be in charge of monitoring the effects of the proposal. It will establish a system for registering stand-alone high-risk AI applications in a public EU-wide database. This registration will also enable competent authorities, users and other interested people to verify if the high-risk AI system complies with the requirements laid down in the proposal and to exercise enhanced oversight over those AI systems posing high risks to fundamental rights.

Moreover, AI providers will be obliged to inform national competent authorities about serious incidents or malfunctioning that constitute a breach of fundamental rights obligations as soon as they become aware of them, as well as any recalls or withdrawals of AI systems from the market.

The Commission will publish a report evaluating and reviewing the proposed AI framework five years following the date on which it becomes applicable.

Budgetary implications

Member States will have to designate supervisory authorities in charge of implementing the legislative requirements. Their supervisory function could build on existing arrangements, for example regarding conformity assessment bodies or market surveillance, but would require sufficient technological expertise and human and financial resources.

Documents

Activities

Votes

Législation sur l’intelligence artificielle - A9-0188/2023 - Brando Benifei, Dragoş Tudorache - Amendements de la commission compétente - vote séparé - Am 227 #

2023/06/14 Outcome: +: 397, -: 193, 0: 30
FR PL DE ES AT IT BE FI PT SK MT IE SE LT LU EL CY DK LV BG RO SI HR EE HU NL CZ
Total
73
49
84
54
19
53
20
12
19
13
4
13
19
11
4
15
6
12
8
16
26
8
10
7
17
27
21
icon: S&D S&D
130

Belgium S&D

2

Lithuania S&D

2

Luxembourg S&D

For (1)

1

Greece S&D

1

Cyprus S&D

2

Latvia S&D

2

Slovenia S&D

2

Croatia S&D

2

Estonia S&D

2

Czechia S&D

For (1)

1
icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE
66

Poland Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Spain Verts/ALE

3

Austria Verts/ALE

3

Italy Verts/ALE

3

Belgium Verts/ALE

3

Finland Verts/ALE

3

Portugal Verts/ALE

1

Ireland Verts/ALE

2

Sweden Verts/ALE

3

Lithuania Verts/ALE

2

Luxembourg Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Denmark Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Romania Verts/ALE

1

Netherlands Verts/ALE

3

Czechia Verts/ALE

3
icon: Renew Renew
93

Poland Renew

1

Austria Renew

For (1)

1

Belgium Renew

4

Finland Renew

3

Ireland Renew

2

Sweden Renew

2

Lithuania Renew

1

Luxembourg Renew

For (1)

1

Greece Renew

1

Latvia Renew

For (1)

1

Slovenia Renew

2

Croatia Renew

For (1)

1

Estonia Renew

For (1)

Against (2)

3

Hungary Renew

For (1)

1
icon: The Left The Left
36

Belgium The Left

For (1)

1

Finland The Left

For (1)

1

Sweden The Left

For (1)

1

Cyprus The Left

2

Denmark The Left

1

Czechia The Left

1
icon: ECR ECR
59

Finland ECR

1

Slovakia ECR

For (1)

1

Sweden ECR

2

Lithuania ECR

Abstain (1)

1

Greece ECR

Abstain (1)

1

Latvia ECR

Abstain (1)

1

Bulgaria ECR

2

Romania ECR

Against (1)

1

Croatia ECR

Abstain (1)

1
icon: ID ID
49
3

Denmark ID

For (1)

1

Estonia ID

Against (1)

1

Czechia ID

For (1)

Against (1)

2
icon: NI NI
38
4

Germany NI

Abstain (1)

3

Belgium NI

For (1)

1

Slovakia NI

2

Lithuania NI

1

Latvia NI

1

Croatia NI

2

Netherlands NI

Against (1)

1
icon: PPE PPE
149

Italy PPE

2

Finland PPE

2

Luxembourg PPE

Against (1)

1

Cyprus PPE

2

Denmark PPE

Against (1)

1

Latvia PPE

3

Slovenia PPE

4

Estonia PPE

Against (1)

1

Hungary PPE

Against (1)

1

A9-0188/2023 - Brando Benifei, Dragoş Tudorache - Amendements de la commission compétente - vote séparé - Am 494/2 #

2023/06/14 Outcome: +: 554, -: 51, 0: 15
FR DE IT PL ES RO NL AT SE HU BG BE CZ LT PT SK FI EL DK HR SI LV IE EE LU MT CY
Total
73
84
54
50
53
26
26
19
19
17
16
20
21
11
19
13
12
15
12
10
8
8
13
7
4
4
6
icon: PPE PPE
149

Italy PPE

2

Hungary PPE

1

Finland PPE

2

Denmark PPE

For (1)

1

Estonia PPE

For (1)

1

Luxembourg PPE

1

Cyprus PPE

2
icon: S&D S&D
129

Belgium S&D

2

Czechia S&D

For (1)

1

Lithuania S&D

2

Greece S&D

1

Croatia S&D

2

Slovenia S&D

2

Latvia S&D

2

Estonia S&D

2

Luxembourg S&D

For (1)

1

Cyprus S&D

2
icon: Renew Renew
93

Poland Renew

1

Austria Renew

For (1)

1

Sweden Renew

2

Hungary Renew

For (1)

1

Lithuania Renew

1

Finland Renew

3

Greece Renew

1

Croatia Renew

For (1)

1

Slovenia Renew

2

Latvia Renew

For (1)

1

Ireland Renew

2

Estonia Renew

3

Luxembourg Renew

For (1)

1
icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE
66

Italy Verts/ALE

3

Poland Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Spain Verts/ALE

3

Romania Verts/ALE

1

Netherlands Verts/ALE

3

Austria Verts/ALE

3

Sweden Verts/ALE

3

Belgium Verts/ALE

3

Czechia Verts/ALE

3

Lithuania Verts/ALE

2

Portugal Verts/ALE

1

Finland Verts/ALE

3

Denmark Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Ireland Verts/ALE

2

Luxembourg Verts/ALE

For (1)

1
icon: ECR ECR
61

Romania ECR

1

Sweden ECR

2

Bulgaria ECR

2

Lithuania ECR

1

Slovakia ECR

For (1)

1

Finland ECR

1

Greece ECR

1

Croatia ECR

1

Latvia ECR

For (1)

1
icon: ID ID
48
3

Czechia ID

Against (2)

2

Denmark ID

Abstain (1)

1

Estonia ID

Against (1)

1
icon: NI NI
38
4

Germany NI

For (1)

3

Netherlands NI

Against (1)

1

Belgium NI

For (1)

1

Lithuania NI

1

Slovakia NI

Against (1)

Abstain (1)

2

Croatia NI

2

Latvia NI

Against (1)

1
icon: The Left The Left
36

Sweden The Left

Against (1)

1

Belgium The Left

Against (1)

1

Czechia The Left

Against (1)

1

Finland The Left

Against (1)

1

Denmark The Left

Against (1)

1

Ireland The Left

4

Cyprus The Left

2

A9-0188/2023 - Brando Benifei, Dragoş Tudorache - Article 1, avant le § 1 - Am 774 #

2023/06/14 Outcome: -: 497, +: 78, 0: 44
MT EL CY LU IE LV HU SK EE HR SI LT FI DK PT AT BG CZ BE SE RO NL FR ES IT PL DE
Total
4
15
6
4
13
8
17
13
7
10
8
11
11
12
19
19
16
21
20
19
26
27
74
54
54
49
82
icon: The Left The Left
36

Cyprus The Left

2

Finland The Left

For (1)

1

Denmark The Left

1

Czechia The Left

1

Belgium The Left

For (1)

1

Sweden The Left

For (1)

1
icon: NI NI
38

Latvia NI

1

Slovakia NI

2

Croatia NI

2

Lithuania NI

1

Belgium NI

Against (1)

1

Netherlands NI

Against (1)

1
4

Germany NI

3
icon: ID ID
49

Estonia ID

Against (1)

1

Denmark ID

Against (1)

1
3

Czechia ID

2
icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE
66

Luxembourg Verts/ALE

Abstain (1)

1

Ireland Verts/ALE

2

Lithuania Verts/ALE

2

Finland Verts/ALE

3

Denmark Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Portugal Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Austria Verts/ALE

3

Czechia Verts/ALE

3

Belgium Verts/ALE

Abstain (1)

3

Sweden Verts/ALE

3

Romania Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Netherlands Verts/ALE

3

Spain Verts/ALE

Against (1)

3

Italy Verts/ALE

3

Poland Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1
icon: ECR ECR
60

Greece ECR

Against (1)

1

Latvia ECR

Against (1)

1

Slovakia ECR

Against (1)

1

Croatia ECR

Against (1)

1

Lithuania ECR

Against (1)

1

Finland ECR

1

Bulgaria ECR

2

Sweden ECR

2

Romania ECR

1
icon: Renew Renew
93

Greece Renew

Against (1)

1

Luxembourg Renew

Against (1)

1

Ireland Renew

2

Latvia Renew

Against (1)

1

Hungary Renew

Against (1)

1

Estonia Renew

3

Croatia Renew

Against (1)

1

Slovenia Renew

2

Lithuania Renew

Against (1)

1

Finland Renew

3

Austria Renew

Against (1)

1

Bulgaria Renew

3

Sweden Renew

2

Italy Renew

3

Poland Renew

1
icon: S&D S&D
127
4

Greece S&D

Against (1)

1

Cyprus S&D

2

Luxembourg S&D

Against (1)

1

Latvia S&D

2

Slovakia S&D

3

Estonia S&D

2

Croatia S&D

2

Slovenia S&D

2

Lithuania S&D

2

Finland S&D

1

Bulgaria S&D

For (1)

4

Czechia S&D

Against (1)

1

Belgium S&D

For (1)

Against (1)

2
icon: PPE PPE
150

Cyprus PPE

2

Luxembourg PPE

Against (1)

1

Latvia PPE

3

Hungary PPE

Against (1)

1

Estonia PPE

Against (1)

1

Slovenia PPE

4

Finland PPE

2

Denmark PPE

Against (1)

1

Italy PPE

2

A9-0188/2023 - Brando Benifei, Dragoş Tudorache - Article 2, § 3 - Am 792 #

2023/06/14 Outcome: -: 471, +: 140, 0: 6
PL HU CZ SE EE LU DK MT HR LV SI CY LT IT BE EL SK FI BG IE NL AT PT RO FR ES DE
Total
49
17
21
19
7
3
12
4
10
8
8
6
11
53
19
15
13
12
15
13
27
19
19
26
74
53
84
icon: ECR ECR
61

Sweden ECR

2

Croatia ECR

1

Latvia ECR

For (1)

1

Lithuania ECR

1

Greece ECR

1

Slovakia ECR

For (1)

1

Finland ECR

1

Bulgaria ECR

2

Romania ECR

Abstain (1)

1
icon: ID ID
47

Czechia ID

For (1)

Against (1)

2

Estonia ID

Against (1)

1

Denmark ID

For (1)

1

Belgium ID

2

Austria ID

3
icon: NI NI
38

Croatia NI

Abstain (1)

2

Latvia NI

Against (1)

1

Lithuania NI

Abstain (1)

1

Belgium NI

Against (1)

1

Slovakia NI

Against (1)

2

Netherlands NI

Against (1)

1

Germany NI

For (1)

3
icon: The Left The Left
36

Czechia The Left

Against (1)

1

Sweden The Left

Against (1)

1

Denmark The Left

Against (1)

1

Cyprus The Left

2

Belgium The Left

Against (1)

1

Finland The Left

Against (1)

1

Ireland The Left

4
icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE
66

Poland Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Czechia Verts/ALE

3

Sweden Verts/ALE

3

Luxembourg Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Denmark Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Lithuania Verts/ALE

2

Italy Verts/ALE

3

Belgium Verts/ALE

3

Finland Verts/ALE

3

Ireland Verts/ALE

2

Netherlands Verts/ALE

3

Austria Verts/ALE

3

Portugal Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Romania Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Spain Verts/ALE

3
icon: Renew Renew
93

Poland Renew

1

Hungary Renew

Against (1)

1

Sweden Renew

2

Estonia Renew

Against (1)

3

Luxembourg Renew

Against (1)

1

Croatia Renew

Against (1)

1

Latvia Renew

Against (1)

1

Slovenia Renew

2

Lithuania Renew

Against (1)

1

Italy Renew

3

Greece Renew

Against (1)

1

Finland Renew

3

Bulgaria Renew

3

Ireland Renew

2

Austria Renew

Against (1)

1
icon: S&D S&D
127

Czechia S&D

Against (1)

1

Estonia S&D

2

Croatia S&D

2

Latvia S&D

2

Slovenia S&D

2

Cyprus S&D

2

Lithuania S&D

2

Belgium S&D

2

Greece S&D

Against (1)

1

Finland S&D

2
3
icon: PPE PPE
149

Hungary PPE

Against (1)

1

Estonia PPE

Against (1)

1

Luxembourg PPE

Against (1)

1

Denmark PPE

Against (1)

1

Latvia PPE

3

Slovenia PPE

For (1)

4

Cyprus PPE

2

Italy PPE

2

Finland PPE

2

A9-0188/2023 - Brando Benifei, Dragoş Tudorache - Article 3, § 1, après le point 1 - Am 775 #

2023/06/14 Outcome: -: 511, +: 101, 0: 4
MT EL CY LU IE FR LV EE HR SI CZ FI DK LT SK PT AT HU BE BG SE RO NL ES PL IT DE
Total
3
15
5
4
13
72
8
7
10
8
21
12
12
11
13
19
19
17
20
16
19
25
27
54
49
54
83
icon: The Left The Left
36

Cyprus The Left

2

Czechia The Left

1

Finland The Left

For (1)

1

Denmark The Left

1

Belgium The Left

For (1)

1

Sweden The Left

For (1)

1
icon: ID ID
48

Estonia ID

Against (1)

1

Czechia ID

2

Denmark ID

Against (1)

1
3
icon: NI NI
38
4

Latvia NI

1

Croatia NI

2

Lithuania NI

Abstain (1)

1

Slovakia NI

Against (1)

2

Belgium NI

Against (1)

1

Netherlands NI

Against (1)

1

Germany NI

Against (1)

3
icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE
65

Luxembourg Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Ireland Verts/ALE

2

Czechia Verts/ALE

3

Finland Verts/ALE

3

Denmark Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Lithuania Verts/ALE

2

Portugal Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Austria Verts/ALE

3

Belgium Verts/ALE

Abstain (1)

3

Sweden Verts/ALE

3

Romania Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Netherlands Verts/ALE

3

Spain Verts/ALE

Against (1)

3

Poland Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Italy Verts/ALE

Against (1)

3
icon: ECR ECR
61

Greece ECR

Against (1)

1

Latvia ECR

Against (1)

1

Croatia ECR

Against (1)

1

Finland ECR

1

Lithuania ECR

Against (1)

1

Slovakia ECR

Against (1)

1

Bulgaria ECR

2

Sweden ECR

2

Romania ECR

Against (1)

1
icon: Renew Renew
93

Greece Renew

Against (1)

1

Luxembourg Renew

Against (1)

1

Ireland Renew

2

Latvia Renew

Against (1)

1

Estonia Renew

3

Croatia Renew

Against (1)

1

Slovenia Renew

2

Finland Renew

3

Lithuania Renew

Against (1)

1

Austria Renew

Against (1)

1

Hungary Renew

Against (1)

1

Bulgaria Renew

3

Sweden Renew

2

Poland Renew

1

Italy Renew

3
icon: S&D S&D
127

Malta S&D

Against (1)

3

Greece S&D

Against (1)

1

Cyprus S&D

Against (1)

1

Luxembourg S&D

Against (1)

1

Latvia S&D

2

Estonia S&D

2

Croatia S&D

2

Slovenia S&D

2

Czechia S&D

Against (1)

1

Finland S&D

2

Lithuania S&D

2

Belgium S&D

For (1)

Against (1)

2
icon: PPE PPE
148

Cyprus PPE

2

Luxembourg PPE

Against (1)

1

Latvia PPE

3

Estonia PPE

Against (1)

1

Slovenia PPE

4

Finland PPE

2

Denmark PPE

Against (1)

1

Hungary PPE

Against (1)

1

Italy PPE

2

A9-0188/2023 - Brando Benifei, Dragoş Tudorache - Article 5, § 1, point c, partie introductive - Am 804 #

2023/06/14 Outcome: -: 524, +: 74, 0: 22
IE LU MT EE LV CY HR HU SI SK LT DK FI AT EL IT BE SE BG NL CZ PT RO FR ES PL DE
Total
13
4
4
7
8
6
10
17
8
13
11
12
12
19
13
54
20
19
16
27
21
19
26
74
53
50
84
icon: ID ID
49

Estonia ID

For (1)

1

Denmark ID

For (1)

1
3