BETA


2015/2255(INI) Social dumping in the European Union

Progress: Procedure completed

RoleCommitteeRapporteurShadows
Lead EMPL BALAS Guillaume (icon: S&D S&D) JAZŁOWIECKA Danuta (icon: PPE PPE), MCINTYRE Anthea (icon: ECR ECR), DLABAJOVÁ Martina (icon: ALDE ALDE), SYLIKIOTIS Neoklis (icon: GUE/NGL GUE/NGL), DELLI Karima (icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE), AGEA Laura (icon: EFDD EFDD), BIZZOTTO Mara (icon: ENF ENF)
Committee Opinion TRAN NILSSON Jens (icon: S&D S&D)
Committee Opinion FEMM REGNER Evelyn (icon: S&D S&D) Beatrix von STORCH (icon: EFDD EFDD)
Lead committee dossier:
Legal Basis:
RoP 54

Events

2016/12/21
   EC - Commission response to text adopted in plenary
Documents
2016/09/14
   EP - Results of vote in Parliament
2016/09/14
   EP - Decision by Parliament, 1st reading/single reading
Details

The European Parliament adopted by 458 to 199 with 34 abstentions a resolution on social dumping in the European Union.

Members recalled that the growth in abusive practices and the increasing exercise of social dumping weaken support for the principle of the internal market and the competitiveness of businesses, in particular SMEs, undermine the rights of European workers and confidence in European integration.

Posted workers make up about 0.7 % of the entire EU labour force. Agriculture, building, construction, catering and food, transport, health, care and domestic services are the main sectors concerned.

Reinforcing controls and coordination between and by Member States : Parliament recalled that, while there is no legally recognised and universally shared definition of social dumping, the concept covers a wide range of intentionally abusive practices and situations which can have an impact as regards three main dimensions:

the economic aspect : the use by certain economic actors of illegal practices such as undeclared work or of abusive practices such as bogus self-employment can lead to major market distortions which are detrimental to bona fide companies, in particular SMEs; the social aspect : social dumping could lead to a situation of discrimination and unfair treatment between workers in the EU and deprive them of the effective exercise of their social and labour rights, including in respect of pay and social protection; the financial and budgetary aspect : the non-payment of due social security contributions and taxes as a result of social dumping represents a threat to the financial sustainability of social security systems and the public finances of the Member States.

Faced with this situation, Members stated that it is crucial to ensure a level playing field and fair competition across the EU and to eliminate social dumping . They called on the Member States to:

increase efficiency and to secure appropriate staffing levels and resources for their control bodies (including social and/or labour inspectorates), through the exchange of best practices and through meeting the benchmark of one labour inspector for every 10 000 workers; improve cross-border cooperation between inspection services and the electronic exchange of information and data, with a view to mandatory cooperation and mutual assistance between Member States; draw up Union-wide in-service training programmes for inspectors, to identify new techniques used to circumvent the rules, and to organise cross-border cooperation; create, where applicable, ad hoc bilateral task forces and, where needed, a multilateral task force including national competent authorities and labour inspectors, to carry out, subject to the approval of all the Member States concerned, on-the-spot cross-border checks, in accordance with the national law of the Member States in which the controls take place, in suspected cases of social dumping; establish legal frameworks allowing the lawful employment of domestic workers and carers , in order to provide legal certainty for employers and fair terms of employment as well as decent working conditions for workers; improve considerably information exchange concerning social security for posted workers, with a view to improving the enforcement of existing legislation.

Parliament recommended that, in the case of posting, it should be made mandatory in all Member States to submit a declaration when the provision of services commences, at the latest, and that such declarations should be entered in a European register . It also called for an EU-wide list of enterprises , including letterbox companies, responsible for serious breaches of European labour and social legislation to be drawn up – after they have received prior warning – which can be consulted only by the relevant authorities. It called for these enterprises to be denied access to public contracts, public subsidies and EU funds for a statutory period.

Addressing regulatory gaps : Members called on the Commission to;

monitor carefully the implementation of Directive 2014/67/EU and the effectiveness of the Platform Tackling Undeclared Work in combating the phenomenon of letterbox companies by applying more generally the principle that each company should have one main corporate headquarters and ensuring that in cases of free provision of services using posted workers, each service provider involved should perform a 'genuine activity' in the Member State of establishment, and therefore be a genuine undertaking ; monitor carefully the application of the obligation placed on Member States by that directive to provide for measures ensuring that, in the construction sector, posted workers in subcontracting chains can hold the contractor of which their employer is a direct subcontractor liable as regards respect for their rights as workers;

As regards mobile workers , Parliament called for the stepping-up of checks in relation to compliance with work, standby, driving and rest times in all relevant sectors, such as construction, catering, health and transport (road), and for the imposition of penalties for serious non-compliance. It called on the Commission to: consider creating a European Road Transport Agency to ensure proper implementation of EU legislation and promote standardisation and cooperation among all Member States as regards road transport. Furthermore, it rejected any further liberalisation of cabotage until the implementation of the current legal framework has been strengthened.

Members also:

stressed t he need for the Commission and the Member States to monitor and ensure proper enforcement of national social legislation and collective agreements for airlines having operational bases on EU territory; recalled the importance of tying the development of the digital and sharing economy to the protection of workers in this new sector, where more flexible working practices may result in more precarious and less regulated employment.

Towards upward social convergence : recalling the Commission's commitment to establishing a pillar of social rights, Members stressed the need for upward social convergence in order to achieve the objectives set out in Article 151 TFEU. The adoption of a pillar of social rights should not lead to the lowering of existing labour and social standards. They recommended the establishment of wage floors in the form of a national minimum wage , with the objective of gradually attaining at least 60 % of the respective national average wage, if possible, so as to avoid excessive wage disparities.

The Commission should also examine the possibility of establishing an instrument whereby companies can be subject to a greater duty of care for which they may be held liable, in respect of both their subsidiaries and their subcontractors operating in third countries, in order to prevent human rights violations, corruption, severe physical injury or environmental damage and the violation of ILO conventions.

Documents
2016/09/14
   EP - End of procedure in Parliament
2016/09/13
   EP - Debate in Parliament
2016/08/18
   EP - Committee report tabled for plenary, single reading
Details

The Committee on Employment and Social Affairs adopted the own-initiative report by Guillaume BALAS (S&D, FR) on social dumping in the European Union.

Members recalled that the growth in abusive practices and the increasing exercise of social dumping weaken support for the principle of the internal market and the competitiveness of businesses, in particular SMEs, undermine the rights of European workers and confidence in European integration and make genuine social convergence essential. Agriculture, building, construction, catering and food, transport, health, care and domestic services are the main sectors concerned.

Reinforcing controls and coordination between and by Member States : Members recalled that, while there is no legally recognised and universally shared definition of social dumping, the concept covers a wide range of intentionally abusive practices and situations which can have an impact as regards three main dimensions:

the economic aspect : the use by certain economic actors of illegal practices such as undeclared work or of abusive practices such as bogus self-employment can lead to major market distortions which are detrimental to bona fide companies, in particular SMEs; the social aspect : social dumping could lead to a situation of discrimination and unfair treatment between workers in the EU and deprive them of the effective exercise of their social and labour rights, including in respect of pay and social protection; the financial and budgetary aspect : the non-payment of due social security contributions and taxes as a result of social dumping represents a threat to the financial sustainability of social security systems and the public finances of the Member States.

Faced with this situation, Members stated that it is crucial to ensure a level playing field and fair competition across the EU and to eliminate social dumping . They called on the Member States to:

increase efficiency and to secure appropriate staffing levels and resources for their control bodies (including social and/or labour inspectorates, agencies and liaison offices), including for interpretation and translation, inter alia through the exchange of best practices; improve cross-border cooperation between inspection services and the electronic exchange of information and data, in order to improve the efficiency of controls intended to combat and prevent social fraud, bogus self-employment and undeclared work, while recognising the importance of data protection, and with a view to mandatory cooperation and mutual assistance between Member States; draw up Union-wide in-service training programmes for inspectors, to identify new techniques used to circumvent the rules, and to organise cross-border cooperation; create, where applicable, ad hoc bilateral task forces and, where needed, a multilateral task force including national competent authorities and labour inspectors, to carry out, subject to the approval of all the Member States concerned, on-the-spot cross-border checks, in accordance with the national law of the Member States in which the controls take place, in suspected cases of social dumping; improve considerably information exchange concerning social security for posted workers, with a view to improving the enforcement of existing legislation and to cooperate across borders in relation to enforcement information.

The report recommended that, in the case of posting, it should be made mandatory in all Member States to submit a declaration when the provision of services commences, at the latest, and that such declarations should be entered in a European register . It also called for an EU-wide list of enterprises , including letterbox companies, responsible for serious breaches of European labour and social legislation to be drawn up – after they have received prior warning – which can be consulted only by the relevant authorities. It called for these enterprises to be denied access to public contracts, public subsidies and EU funds for a statutory period.

Addressing regulatory gaps : Members called on the Commission to monitor carefully the implementation of Directive 2014/67/EU and the effectiveness of the Platform Tackling Undeclared Work in combating the phenomenon of letterbox companies by applying more generally the principle that each company should have one main corporate headquarters and ensuring that in cases of free provision of services using posted workers, each service provider involved should perform a 'genuine activity' in the Member State of establishment.

As regards mobile workers , the report called for the stepping-up of checks in relation to compliance with work, standby, driving and rest times in all relevant sectors, such as construction, catering, health and transport (road), and for the imposition of penalties for serious non-compliance. It called on the Commission to:

consider creating a European Road Transport Agency to ensure proper implementation of EU legislation and promote standardisation and cooperation among all Member States as regards road transport; draw up a national collective agreement in all Member States, in cooperation with the social partners, in order to guarantee certain rules on rest times and suitable social safeguards, above all in the event of acquisitions by airlines outside the EU.

Members also recalled the importance of tying the development of the digital and sharing economy to the protection of workers in this new sector, where more flexible working practices may result in forms of employment with lower standards as regards social security, working time, working location, training, worker participation and employment protection.

Towards upward social convergence : recalling the Commission's commitment to establishing a pillar of social rights, Members stressed the need for upward social convergence in order to achieve the objectives set out in Article 151 TFEU. The Commission urged the Commission, in the specific recommendations it makes to the Member States as part of the European Semester , to incorporate opinions on social issues with a view to enhancing worker protection through convergence.

The Commission should also examine the possibility of establishing an instrument whereby companies can be subject to a greater duty of care for which they may be held liable, in respect of both their subsidiaries and their subcontractors operating in third countries, in order to prevent human rights violations, corruption, severe physical injury or environmental damage and the violation of ILO conventions.

Documents
2016/07/13
   EP - Vote in committee, 1st reading/single reading
2016/04/08
   EP - Committee opinion
Documents
2016/03/10
   EP - Amendments tabled in committee
Documents
2016/02/25
   EP - Amendments tabled in committee
Documents
2016/02/18
   EP - Committee opinion
Documents
2016/01/07
   EP - Committee draft report
Documents
2015/10/29
   EP - Committee referral announced in Parliament, 1st reading/single reading
2015/10/07
   EP - REGNER Evelyn (S&D) appointed as rapporteur in FEMM
2015/09/18
   EP - NILSSON Jens (S&D) appointed as rapporteur in TRAN
2015/07/23
   EP - BALAS Guillaume (S&D) appointed as rapporteur in EMPL

Documents

Activities

Votes

A8-0255/2016 - Guillaume Balas - § 1/1

2016/09/14 Outcome: +: 652, -: 29, 0: 22
DE FR IT ES GB PL RO BE PT NL SE EL BG AT FI SK HU LT IE HR DK SI MT CZ LU EE CY LV
Total
89
68
70
51
68
49
31
21
21
25
19
20
17
15
12
13
16
10
10
10
10
8
6
21
5
5
5
7
icon: S&D S&D
178

Netherlands S&D

3

Ireland S&D

For (1)

1

Croatia S&D

2

Denmark S&D

2

Slovenia S&D

For (1)

1

Malta S&D

3

Luxembourg S&D

For (1)

1

Cyprus S&D

2

Latvia S&D

1
icon: PPE PPE
202

Finland PPE

2

Denmark PPE

For (1)

1

Luxembourg PPE

2

Estonia PPE

For (1)

1

Cyprus PPE

1
icon: ECR ECR
70

Italy ECR

2

Romania ECR

For (1)

1

Netherlands ECR

2

Greece ECR

Abstain (1)

1

Bulgaria ECR

2
2

Slovakia ECR

Abstain (1)

3

Lithuania ECR

1

Croatia ECR

For (1)

1

Czechia ECR

2

Latvia ECR

For (1)

1
icon: ALDE ALDE
64

United Kingdom ALDE

1

Romania ALDE

3

Austria ALDE

For (1)

1

Ireland ALDE

For (1)

1

Croatia ALDE

For (1)

1

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1

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For (1)

1

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For (1)

1

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3
icon: GUE/NGL GUE/NGL
51

United Kingdom GUE/NGL

1

Netherlands GUE/NGL

3

Finland GUE/NGL

For (1)

1

Denmark GUE/NGL

For (1)

1

Cyprus GUE/NGL

2
icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE
46

Belgium Verts/ALE

2

Netherlands Verts/ALE

2

Austria Verts/ALE

3

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1

Lithuania Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

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1

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1

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1

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1

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1

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1
icon: ENF ENF
36

Germany ENF

For (1)

1

United Kingdom ENF

For (1)

1

Poland ENF

Against (1)

1

Romania ENF

1

Belgium ENF

For (1)

1

Netherlands ENF

3
3
icon: EFDD EFDD
42

Germany EFDD

Against (1)

1

France EFDD

1

Poland EFDD

1

Sweden EFDD

2

Czechia EFDD

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1
icon: NI NI
13

Germany NI

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2

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1

Poland NI

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Hungary NI

2

A8-0255/2016 - Guillaume Balas - § 1/2

2016/09/14 Outcome: +: 513, -: 183, 0: 5
IT DE ES FR PT EL HU SE AT IE DK SK SI PL BE MT HR NL CY LU BG FI LT EE RO LV CZ GB
Total
69
90
50
67
21
20
16
19
15
10
11
13
8
49
21
6
10
25
5
6
16
12
10
6
30
7
21
67
icon: PPE PPE
201

Denmark PPE

For (1)

1

Cyprus PPE

1

Luxembourg PPE

3

Finland PPE

2

Estonia PPE

For (1)

1
icon: S&D S&D
178

Ireland S&D

For (1)

1

Denmark S&D

2

Slovenia S&D

For (1)

1

Malta S&D

3

Croatia S&D

2

Netherlands S&D

3

Cyprus S&D

2

Luxembourg S&D

For (1)

1

Estonia S&D

For (1)

1

Latvia S&D

1
icon: GUE/NGL GUE/NGL
51

Denmark GUE/NGL

For (1)

1

Netherlands GUE/NGL

3

Cyprus GUE/NGL

2

Finland GUE/NGL

For (1)

1

United Kingdom GUE/NGL

1
icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE
46

Austria Verts/ALE

3

Denmark Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Slovenia Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Belgium Verts/ALE

2

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For (1)

1

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2

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1

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1

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1

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1

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1
icon: NI NI
13

Germany NI

Against (1)

2

France NI

Against (1)

3

Hungary NI

2

Poland NI

Against (1)

1

United Kingdom NI

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1
icon: EFDD EFDD
41

Germany EFDD

Against (1)

1

France EFDD

1

Sweden EFDD

2

Poland EFDD

1

Czechia EFDD

Against (1)

1
icon: ENF ENF
36

Germany ENF

Against (1)

1
3

Poland ENF

Against (1)

1

Belgium ENF

Abstain (1)

1

Netherlands ENF

3

Romania ENF

Against (1)

1

United Kingdom ENF

Against (1)

1
icon: ALDE ALDE
65

Austria ALDE

Against (1)

1

Ireland ALDE

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1

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For (1)

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2

Slovenia ALDE

For (1)

1

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1

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1

Estonia ALDE

3

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Abstain (1)

3

United Kingdom ALDE

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1
icon: ECR ECR
69

Italy ECR

2

Greece ECR

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1

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3

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1

Netherlands ECR

2

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2

Finland ECR

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2

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1

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1

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1

Czechia ECR

2

A8-0255/2016 - Guillaume Balas - § 1/3

2016/09/14 Outcome: +: 501, -: 180, 0: 22
IT DE ES FR PT EL AT IE DK SI SK BE SE PL MT HR CY BG NL LU GB LT FI EE HU LV RO CZ
Total
70
89
51
68
21
20
15
10
11
8
13
21
19
49
6
10
5
17
24
6
67
10
12
6
15
7
31
21
icon: S&D S&D
178

Ireland S&D

For (1)

1

Denmark S&D

2

Slovenia S&D

For (1)

1

Malta S&D

3

Croatia S&D

2

Cyprus S&D

2

Netherlands S&D

3

Luxembourg S&D

For (1)

1

Estonia S&D

For (1)

1

Latvia S&D

1
icon: PPE PPE
203

Denmark PPE

For (1)

1

Cyprus PPE

1

Luxembourg PPE

3

Finland PPE

2

Estonia PPE

For (1)

1
icon: GUE/NGL GUE/NGL
50

Denmark GUE/NGL

For (1)

1

Cyprus GUE/NGL

2

Netherlands GUE/NGL

2

United Kingdom GUE/NGL

1

Finland GUE/NGL

For (1)

1
icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE
45

Austria Verts/ALE

3

Denmark Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Slovenia Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Belgium Verts/ALE

2

Croatia Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

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2

Luxembourg Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

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For (1)

1

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For (1)

1

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1

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1
icon: EFDD EFDD
42

Germany EFDD

Against (1)

1

France EFDD

1

Sweden EFDD

2

Poland EFDD

1

Czechia EFDD

Against (1)

1
icon: NI NI
13

Germany NI

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2

Poland NI

Against (1)

1

United Kingdom NI

Against (1)

1

Hungary NI

2
icon: ENF ENF
36

Germany ENF

Against (1)

1
3

Belgium ENF

For (1)

1

Poland ENF

Against (1)

1

Netherlands ENF

3

United Kingdom ENF

Abstain (1)

1

Romania ENF

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1
icon: ALDE ALDE
65

Austria ALDE

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1

Ireland ALDE

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1

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2

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1

Croatia ALDE

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1

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1

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1

Estonia ALDE

3

Romania ALDE

3
icon: ECR ECR
70

Italy ECR

2

Greece ECR

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1

Slovakia ECR

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3

Croatia ECR

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1

Bulgaria ECR

2

Netherlands ECR

2

Lithuania ECR

Against (1)

1

Finland ECR

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2

Latvia ECR

Against (1)

1

Romania ECR

Against (1)

1

Czechia ECR

2

A8-0255/2016 - Guillaume Balas - § 2/1

2016/09/14 Outcome: +: 571, -: 118, 0: 13
DE IT ES FR RO PT NL CZ SE EL BE HU BG AT DK IE FI HR SI LT SK MT LU CY EE PL LV GB
Total
90
69
51
68
31
21
25
21
19
20
21
16
17
15
11
10
12
10
8
9
13
6
5
5
4
49
7
68
icon: PPE PPE
203

Denmark PPE

For (1)

1

Finland PPE

2

Luxembourg PPE

3

Cyprus PPE

1

Estonia PPE

For (1)

1
icon: S&D S&D
178

Netherlands S&D

3

Denmark S&D

2

Ireland S&D

For (1)

1

Croatia S&D

2

Slovenia S&D

For (1)

1

Malta S&D

3

Luxembourg S&D

For (1)

1

Cyprus S&D

2

Latvia S&D

1
icon: ALDE ALDE
65

Romania ALDE

3

Austria ALDE

For (1)

1

Denmark ALDE

2

Ireland ALDE

For (1)

1

Croatia ALDE

For (1)

1

Slovenia ALDE

For (1)

1

Luxembourg ALDE

For (1)

1

Estonia ALDE

3

United Kingdom ALDE

1
icon: GUE/NGL GUE/NGL
51

Netherlands GUE/NGL

3

Denmark GUE/NGL

For (1)

1

Finland GUE/NGL

For (1)

1

Cyprus GUE/NGL

2

United Kingdom GUE/NGL

1
icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE
43

Netherlands Verts/ALE

2

Belgium Verts/ALE

2

Austria Verts/ALE

3

Denmark Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Finland Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Croatia Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Slovenia Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Latvia Verts/ALE

1
icon: NI NI
13

Germany NI

2

Hungary NI

2

Poland NI

Against (1)

1

United Kingdom NI

Against (1)

1
icon: EFDD EFDD
42

Germany EFDD

Against (1)

1

France EFDD

1

Czechia EFDD

Against (1)

1

Sweden EFDD

2

Poland EFDD

1
icon: ENF ENF
36

Germany ENF

Against (1)

1

Romania ENF

Against (1)

1

Netherlands ENF

3

Belgium ENF

Abstain (1)

1

Austria ENF

3

Poland ENF

Against (1)

1

United Kingdom ENF

Against (1)

1
icon: ECR ECR
70

Italy ECR

2

Romania ECR

Abstain (1)

1

Netherlands ECR

2

Czechia ECR

2

Greece ECR

For (1)

1

Bulgaria ECR

2

Finland ECR

Against (1)

2

Croatia ECR

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1

Lithuania ECR

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1

Latvia ECR

Against (1)

1

A8-0255/2016 - Guillaume Balas - § 2/2

2016/09/14 Outcome: +: 514, -: 158, 0: 28
IT DE PL ES RO HU FR PT SE AT BE CZ HR DK SI BG LV SK IE MT LT FI LU NL CY EL EE GB
Total
69
90
49
51
31
16
67
21
19
15
21
21
10
11
8
17
7
13
10
6
10
11
5
25
5
20
4
67
icon: PPE PPE
203

Denmark PPE

For (1)

1

Finland PPE

2

Luxembourg PPE

2

Cyprus PPE

1

Estonia PPE

For (1)

1
icon: S&D S&D
178

Croatia S&D

2

Denmark S&D

2

Slovenia S&D

For (1)

1

Latvia S&D

1

Ireland S&D

For (1)

1

Malta S&D

3

Luxembourg S&D

For (1)

1

Netherlands S&D

3

Cyprus S&D

2
icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE
45

Austria Verts/ALE

3

Belgium Verts/ALE

2

Croatia Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Denmark Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Slovenia Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Latvia Verts/ALE

1

Lithuania Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Finland Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Luxembourg Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Netherlands Verts/ALE

2
icon: EFDD EFDD
40

Germany EFDD

Against (1)

1

Poland EFDD

1

France EFDD

1

Sweden EFDD

2

Czechia EFDD

Against (1)

1
icon: ECR ECR
70

Italy ECR

2

Romania ECR

Abstain (1)

1

Czechia ECR

Against (1)

2

Croatia ECR

Against (1)

1

Bulgaria ECR

2

Latvia ECR

For (1)

1

Lithuania ECR

1

Finland ECR

Against (1)

2

Netherlands ECR

2

Greece ECR

For (1)

1
icon: NI NI
13

Germany NI

2

Poland NI

Against (1)

1

Hungary NI

2

United Kingdom NI

Against (1)

1
icon: GUE/NGL GUE/NGL
51

Italy GUE/NGL

Against (1)

3

Portugal GUE/NGL

Abstain (1)

4

Denmark GUE/NGL

Abstain (1)

1
4

Finland GUE/NGL

For (1)

1

Netherlands GUE/NGL

3

Cyprus GUE/NGL

2

United Kingdom GUE/NGL

Abstain (1)

1
icon: ENF ENF
35

Germany ENF

Against (1)

1

Poland ENF

Against (1)

1

Romania ENF

Abstain (1)

1
3

Belgium ENF

Against (1)

1

Netherlands ENF

3

United Kingdom ENF

Against (1)

1
icon: ALDE ALDE
64

Germany ALDE

3

Romania ALDE

3

Austria ALDE

Against (1)

1

Croatia ALDE

For (1)

1

Denmark ALDE

For (1)

Against (1)

2

Slovenia ALDE

For (1)

1

Bulgaria ALDE

4

Ireland ALDE

For (1)

1

Finland ALDE

3

Luxembourg ALDE

Against (1)

1

Estonia ALDE

3

United Kingdom ALDE

Against (1)

1

A8-0255/2016 - Guillaume Balas - § 8/1

2016/09/14 Outcome: +: 653, 0: 42, -: 10
DE FR IT ES GB PL RO PT BE EL NL CZ SE BG AT HU FI SK DK LT IE HR LV SI LU MT CY EE
Total
90
68
70
50
69
48
31
21
21
20
25
21
19
17
15
16
12
13
11
10
10
10
8
8
6
6
5
4
icon: PPE PPE
203

Finland PPE

2

Denmark PPE

For (1)

1

Luxembourg PPE

3

Cyprus PPE

1

Estonia PPE

For (1)

1
icon: S&D S&D
177