BETA


2018/0244(CNS) Association of the overseas countries and territories with the EU including EU/Greenland/Denmark relations 2021–2027

Progress: Awaiting final decision

RoleCommitteeRapporteurShadows
Lead DEVE PONGA Maurice (icon: PPE PPE) FRUNZULICĂ Doru-Claudian (icon: S&D S&D), THEOCHAROUS Eleni (icon: ECR ECR), ZAHRADIL Jan (icon: ECR ECR), GOERENS Charles (icon: ALDE ALDE), SÁNCHEZ CALDENTEY Lola (icon: GUE/NGL GUE/NGL), HEUBUCH Maria (icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE), D'ORNANO Mireille (icon: EFDD EFDD)
Committee Opinion BUDG
Committee Opinion EMPL
Committee Opinion ENVI
Committee Opinion PECH
Lead committee dossier:
Legal Basis:
TFEU 203

Events

2019/02/27
   Commission response to text adopted in plenary
Documents
2019/01/31
   EP - Results of vote in Parliament
2019/01/31
   EP - Decision by Parliament, 1st reading/single reading
Details

The European Parliament adopted by 566 votes to 40, with 41 abstentions, following the consultation procedure, a legislative resolution on the proposal for a Council decision on the association of the overseas countries and territories with the European Union, including relations between the European Union, on the one hand, and Greenland and the Kingdom of Denmark, on the other (Overseas Association Decision or OAD).

The European Parliament approved the Commission's proposal subject to the following amendments:

Objectives

Parliament specified that the association between the Union and the OCTs should contribute to the achievement of the sustainable development objectives as defined in Agenda 2030 and in the implementation of the Paris Climate Agreement.

Those specific objectives would be as follows:

- to assist the OCTs in addressing the major challenges they face, including the level of education for Greenland;

- to strengthen the resilience of the OCTs, reducing their economic and environmental vulnerability;

- to improve the competitiveness of the OCTs, including as regards social standards;

- to promote cooperation between the OCTs and other partners.

Members proposed that specific treatment be accorded to the least developed OCTs so as to enable them to catch up and address their permanent structural constraints.

The association should:

- promote the principles of democracy, the rule of law and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms on which it is based, through dialogue and cooperation between the Union and the OCTs;

- promote equality and equity between men and women in the OCTs, as well as the empowerment of women and equal political and economic opportunities for women. All initiatives should incorporate a gender dimension.

The Union and the OCTs should cooperate to ensure the active participation of young people in the labour market in order to combat youth unemployment.

With regard to environmental issues, cooperation should also focus on addressing issues linked to land degradation, including rising sea levels and soil contamination, as well as combating illegal logging.

Budget

Parliament has proposed that the financial allocation for the programme for the period 2021-2027 be set at EUR 669 million in current prices instead of the EUR 500 million proposed by the Commission.

The general distribution proposed is as follows:

- 81% for territorial cooperation;

- 12% for regional cooperation, including EUR 30 million for intra-regional operations;

- 3.5% for technical assistance;

- 3.5% for an unallocated fund for all OCTs, which would include Greenland.

The envelopes allocated to each OCT have been specified.

Dialogue with the OCTs

This dialogue should enable the OCTs to play a full part in implementing the association and also in defining and implementing the Union's regional strategies in the areas in which the OCTs are located.

The dialogue with the Caribbean OCTs should in particular serve to strengthen the European strategy in the Caribbean region and to foster cooperation on issues relating to biodiversity, climate change, sustainable resource management, disaster risk prevention and management, the social dimension, as well as on promoting good governance, including in the field of taxation and the fight against organised crime.

Programming

Members proposed including rules on programming directly in the new OAD, taking over the rules proposed for the Neighbourhood, Development and International Cooperation Instrument ( NDICI ). These would apply to the OCTs, while recalling the principle that the Financial Regulation is applicable, unless otherwise provided for in the OAD.

Documents
2019/01/04
   CZ_SENATE - Contribution
Documents
2018/12/20
   EP - Committee report tabled for plenary, 1st reading/single reading
Details

The Committee on Development adopted, in accordance with the consultation procedure, the report by Maurice PONGA (EPP, FR) on the proposal for a Council Decision on the association of the overseas countries and territories with the European Union, including relations between the European Union, on the one hand, and Greenland and the Kingdom of Denmark, on the other (Overseas Association Decision – ODA).

The committee recommended that the European Parliament approve the Commission's proposal subject to the following amendments:

Objectives

Members said that the association between the EU and the OCTs should contribute to the achievement of sustainable development goals as defined in Agenda 2030 and to the implementation of the Paris Climate Agreement.

The specific objectives would be as follows:

- assist the OCTs in addressing the major challenges they face, including the level of education for Greenland;

- strengthen the resilience of the OCTs, reducing their economic and environmental vulnerability;

- improve the competitiveness of the OCTs, including social standards;

- promote OCT cooperation with other partners.

Members proposed that specific treatment be defined for the least developed OCTs in order to enable them to catch up and to address their permanent structural constraints.

The association should:

- promote the principles of democracy, the rule of law and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms on which it is based, through dialogue and cooperation between the Union and the OCTs;

- promote equality and equity between men and women in the OCTs, as well as the empowerment of women and equal political and economic opportunities for women. All initiatives shall incorporate the gender dimension.

Budget

Members proposed that the financial envelope for the programme for the period 2021-2027 be set at EUR 669 million in current prices instead of the EUR 500 million proposed by the Commission.

The general distribution proposed by the Members is as follows:

- 81% for territorial cooperation;

- 12% for regional cooperation, including EUR 30 million for intra-regional operations;

- 3.5% for technical assistance;

- 3.5% of non-allocated funds.

The envelopes allocated to each OCT have been specified.

Programming

Members proposed to include the programming rules directly in the new ODA by taking over the rules proposed in the NDICI applicable to the OCTs and recalling the principle that the Financial Regulation applies, except where specifically provided in the OAD.

Documents
2018/12/13
   EP - Vote in committee, 1st reading/single reading
2018/12/06
   CofR - Committee of the Regions: opinion
Documents
2018/11/23
   EP - Amendments tabled in committee
Documents
2018/11/06
   EP - Committee draft report
Documents
2018/10/17
   ESC - Economic and Social Committee: opinion, report
Documents
2018/09/10
   EP - Committee referral announced in Parliament, 1st reading/single reading
2018/08/10
   EP - Responsible Committee
2018/06/14
   EC - Document attached to the procedure
2018/06/14
   EC - Legislative proposal published
Details

PURPOSE: to establish the the rules and procedures governing the EU's association with the Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs), including Greenland (Overseas Association Decision) for the period 2021-2027.

PROPOSED ACT: Council Decision.

ROLE OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT: the Council adopts the act after consulting the European Parliament but without being obliged to follow its opinion.

BACKGROUND: Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) have been associated with the European Union since the entry into force of the Treaty of Rome. These 25 islands located in the Atlantic, Antarctic, Arctic, Caribbean, Indian Ocean and Pacific regions are not sovereign countries, but depend on four EU Member States: Denmark, France, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.

The OCTs are not part of the Union’s customs territory and are outside the internal market. In addition, most OCTs face specific challenges due to their size and remoteness. In this context, the EU has financed territorial and regional European Development Fund (EDF) programmes in the OCTs in previous decades.

The main source of funding for the current 'Overseas Association Decision' is the 11th EDF which covers programming and financing of territorial and regional programmes for OCTs other than Greenland, which is the subject of a specific decision financed from the EU budget (the Greenland Decision ).

Under the next multiannual financial framework of the Union for the period 2021-2027, it is proposed to regroup a number of external financing instruments into a comprehensive instrument called the neighbourhood, development and international cooperation instrument ( NDICI ) and to integrate the EDF into the EU budget. Thus, from 1 January 2021, the Union assistance to OCTs previously financed by the European Development Fund (EDF) shall be financed from the general budget of the Union .

In order to streamline the number of external financing instruments and their performance, the relations with all OCTs, including Greenland, shall be regrouped by replacing the Overseas Association Decision and the Greenland Decision by a single Decision .

CONTENT: this proposal for a Decision aims to establish, for the period 2021-207, an association of the overseas countries and territories (OCTs) with the Union , which shall constitute a partnership aimed at fostering the sustainable development of the OCTs and promote the values and standards of the Union in the wider world.

The proposed instrument takes account of the exit of the United Kingdom from the European Union on 29 March 2019 effective with the expiration of the transition period on 1 January 2021 and thus does not apply to British OCTs .

Cooperation with the Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs), including Greenland, shall aim to support and strengthen economic, political and cultural relations between the EU and the Overseas Countries and Territories linked to the EU Member States.

Priority shall be given to cooperation in areas of mutual interest, such as:

the economic diversification of OCTs' economies, including their further integration in world and regional economies; in the specific case of Greenland, the need to increase the skills of its labour force; the promotion of green and blue economy; the sustainable management of natural resources, including the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystem services; climate change mitigation and adaptation to the impacts of climate change; the promotion of disaster risk reduction; the promotion of research, innovation and scientific cooperation activities; the promotion of social, cultural and economic exchanges between the OCTs, their neighbours and other partners; Arctic issues.

The association is the framework for policy dialogue and cooperation on issues of mutual interest. It shall continue to be based on the three key pillars of enhancing competitiveness, strengthening resilience and reducing vulnerability, and promoting cooperation and integration between the OCTs and other partners and neighbouring regions.

Without prejudice to the Commission’s prerogatives, the OCT authorities shall have primary responsibility for implementing the operations agreed on under the cooperation strategy. The Commission shall be responsible for establishing the general rules and conditions for these programmes and projects.

Actions under this programme are expected to contribute 20 % of the overall financial envelope of the programme to climate objectives .

In principle, the OCTs shall remain eligible, under the next multiannual financial framework, to participate in Union programmes. They shall participate in the thematic programmes and rapid response actions of the neighbourhood, development and international cooperation instrument.

Proposed budget : the proposed decision earmarks EUR 500 million (in current prices) to the association with the OCTs under the heading ‘Neighbourhood and the world' of the multiannual financial framework for the period 2021-2027.

Of this amount, EUR 225 million shall be allocated to Greenland and EUR 225 million to the other OCTs, including EUR 159 million for territorial programmes and EUR 66 million for regional programmes.

In addition an intra-regional financial envelope of EUR 15 million is open to all the OCTs, including Greenland.

Moreover an amount of EUR 22 million for technical assistance is foreseen in accordance with the new Decision as well as a non-allocated amount of EUR 13 million .

The financial resources for Greenland shall come from heading 6 of the EU budget: ‘Neighbourhood and the world’. As regards the other OCTs, their financial allocations shall be transferred from the EDF to the ‘Neighbourhood and the World’ heading of the budget.

Documents

  • Commission response to text adopted in plenary: SP(2019)150
  • Results of vote in Parliament: Results of vote in Parliament
  • Decision by Parliament, 1st reading/single reading: T8-0053/2019
  • Contribution: COM(2018)0461
  • Committee report tabled for plenary, 1st reading/single reading: A8-0480/2018
  • Committee of the Regions: opinion: CDR4008/2018
  • Amendments tabled in committee: PE630.663
  • Committee draft report: PE629.642
  • Economic and Social Committee: opinion, report: CES4576/2018
  • Document attached to the procedure: EUR-Lex
  • Document attached to the procedure: SWD(2018)0337
  • Legislative proposal published: COM(2018)0461
  • Legislative proposal published: EUR-Lex
  • Document attached to the procedure: EUR-Lex SWD(2018)0337
  • Economic and Social Committee: opinion, report: CES4576/2018
  • Committee draft report: PE629.642
  • Amendments tabled in committee: PE630.663
  • Committee of the Regions: opinion: CDR4008/2018
  • Commission response to text adopted in plenary: SP(2019)150
  • Contribution: COM(2018)0461

Votes

A8-0480/2018 - Maurice Ponga - Vote unique 31/01/2019 12:24:10.000

2019/01/31 Outcome: +: 566, 0: 41, -: 40
DE FR IT ES PL RO PT HU BE BG CZ SE AT NL FI GB IE SK LT HR LU EE LV DK SI CY MT EL ??
Total
81
64
64
48
45
27
19
19
20
16
18
16
17
23
12
61
10
10
9
9
6
6
6
11
5
5
5
14
1
icon: PPE PPE
188

Finland PPE

2

United Kingdom PPE

1

Luxembourg PPE

3

Estonia PPE

For (1)

1

Denmark PPE

For (1)

1

Cyprus PPE

1
icon: S&D S&D
162

Netherlands S&D

For (1)

1

Ireland S&D

For (1)

1

Slovakia S&D

2

Lithuania S&D

1

Croatia S&D

For (1)

1

Luxembourg S&D

For (1)

1

Estonia S&D

For (1)

1

Latvia S&D

1

Cyprus S&D

1

Malta S&D

2
icon: ALDE ALDE
62

Germany ALDE

2

Romania ALDE

3

Portugal ALDE

1

Sweden ALDE

2

Austria ALDE

For (1)

1

United Kingdom ALDE

1

Ireland ALDE

For (1)

1

Croatia ALDE

2

Luxembourg ALDE

For (1)

1

Estonia ALDE

3

Latvia ALDE

1

Denmark ALDE

2

Slovenia ALDE

For (1)

1
icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE
48

Hungary Verts/ALE

2

Belgium Verts/ALE

2

Sweden Verts/ALE

3

Austria Verts/ALE

3

Netherlands Verts/ALE

2

Finland Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Lithuania Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Croatia Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Luxembourg Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Estonia Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Denmark Verts/ALE

For (1)

1
icon: ECR ECR
65

Romania ECR

2

Bulgaria ECR

2

Czechia ECR

2

Sweden ECR

2

Netherlands ECR

2
2

Slovakia ECR

2

Lithuania ECR

1

Croatia ECR

For (1)

1

Cyprus ECR

1

Greece ECR

Against (1)

1
icon: GUE/NGL GUE/NGL
40

Italy GUE/NGL

2

Czechia GUE/NGL

2

Sweden GUE/NGL

For (1)

1

Netherlands GUE/NGL

Against (1)

3

Finland GUE/NGL

For (1)

1

United Kingdom GUE/NGL

1

Denmark GUE/NGL

Against (1)

1

Cyprus GUE/NGL

2

Greece GUE/NGL

2
icon: ENF ENF
34

Germany ENF

Abstain (1)

1

Poland ENF

2

Belgium ENF

Against (1)

1

Austria ENF

For (1)

3

Netherlands ENF

4

United Kingdom ENF

4
icon: NI NI
14

Germany NI

2

France NI

For (1)

1

Hungary NI

2

NI

Abstain (1)

1
icon: EFDD EFDD
34

Germany EFDD

Abstain (1)

1
4

Poland EFDD

1

Czechia EFDD

Against (1)

1

Lithuania EFDD

For (1)

1
AmendmentsDossier
42 2018/0244(CNS)
2018/11/23 DEVE 42 amendments...
source: 630.663

History

(these mark the time of scraping, not the official date of the change)

activities
  • date
    2018-06-14T00:00:00
    docs
    • url
      http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/docs_autres_institutions/commission_europeenne/com/2018/0461/COM_COM(2018)0461_EN.pdf
      text
      • PURPOSE: to establish the the rules and procedures governing the EU's association with the Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs), including Greenland (Overseas Association Decision) for the period 2021-2027.

        PROPOSED ACT: Council Decision.

        ROLE OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT: the Council adopts the act after consulting the European Parliament but without being obliged to follow its opinion.

        BACKGROUND: Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) have been associated with the European Union since the entry into force of the Treaty of Rome. These 25 islands located in the Atlantic, Antarctic, Arctic, Caribbean, Indian Ocean and Pacific regions are not sovereign countries, but depend on four EU Member States: Denmark, France, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.

        The OCTs are not part of the Union’s customs territory and are outside the internal market. In addition, most OCTs face specific challenges due to their size and remoteness. In this context, the EU has financed territorial and regional European Development Fund (EDF) programmes in the OCTs in previous decades.

        The main source of funding for the current 'Overseas Association Decision' is the 11th EDF which covers programming and financing of territorial and regional programmes for OCTs other than Greenland, which is the subject of a specific decision financed from the EU budget (the Greenland Decision).

        Under the next multiannual financial framework of the Union for the period 2021-2027, it is proposed to regroup a number of external financing instruments into a comprehensive instrument called the neighbourhood, development and international cooperation instrument (NDICI) and to integrate the EDF into the EU budget. Thus, from 1 January 2021, the Union assistance to OCTs previously financed by the European Development Fund (EDF) shall be financed from the general budget of the Union.

        In order to streamline the number of external financing instruments and their performance, the relations with all OCTs, including Greenland, shall be regrouped by replacing the Overseas Association Decision and the Greenland Decision by a single Decision

        CONTENT: this proposal for a Decision aims to establish, for the period 2021-207, an association of the overseas countries and territories (OCTs) with the Union, which shall constitute a partnership aimed at fostering the sustainable development of the OCTs and promote the values and standards of the Union in the wider world.

        The proposed instrument takes account of the exit of the United Kingdom from the European Union on 29 March 2019 effective with the expiration of the transition period on 1 January 2021 and thus does not apply to British OCTs.

        Cooperation with the Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs), including Greenland, shall aim to support and strengthen economic, political and cultural relations between the EU and the Overseas Countries and Territories linked to the EU Member States.

        Priority shall be given to cooperation in areas of mutual interest, such as:

        • the economic diversification of OCTs' economies, including their further integration in world and regional economies;
        • in the specific case of Greenland, the need to increase the skills of its labour force;
        • the promotion of green and blue economy;
        • the sustainable management of natural resources, including the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystem services;
        • climate change mitigation and adaptation to the impacts of climate change;
        • the promotion of disaster risk reduction;
        • the promotion of research, innovation and scientific cooperation activities;
        • the promotion of social, cultural and economic exchanges between the OCTs, their neighbours and other partners;
        • Arctic issues.

        The association is the framework for policy dialogue and cooperation on issues of mutual interest. It shall continue to be based on the three key pillars of enhancing competitiveness, strengthening resilience and reducing vulnerability, and promoting cooperation and integration between the OCTs and other partners and neighbouring regions.

        Without prejudice to the Commission’s prerogatives, the OCT authorities shall have primary responsibility for implementing the operations agreed on under the cooperation strategy. The Commission shall be responsible for establishing the general rules and conditions for these programmes and projects.

        Actions under this programme are expected to contribute 20 % of the overall financial envelope of the programme to climate objectives.

        In principle, the OCTs shall remain eligible, under the next multiannual financial framework, to participate in Union programmes. They shall participate in the thematic programmes and rapid response actions of the neighbourhood, development and international cooperation instrument.

        Proposed budget: the proposed decision earmarks EUR 500 million (in current prices) to the association with the OCTs under the heading ‘Neighbourhood and the world' of the multiannual financial framework for the period 2021-2027.

        Of this amount, EUR 225 million shall be allocated to Greenland and EUR 225 million to the other OCTs, including EUR 159 million for territorial programmes and EUR 66 million for regional programmes.

        In addition an intra-regional financial envelope of EUR 15 million is open to all the OCTs, including Greenland.

        Moreover an amount of EUR 22 million for technical assistance is foreseen in accordance with the new Decision as well as a non-allocated amount of EUR 13 million.

        The financial resources for Greenland shall come from heading 6 of the EU budget: ‘Neighbourhood and the world’. As regards the other OCTs, their financial allocations shall be transferred from the EDF to the ‘Neighbourhood and the World’ heading of the budget.

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    MIMICA Neven
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    • PURPOSE: to establish the the rules and procedures governing the EU's association with the Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs), including Greenland (Overseas Association Decision) for the period 2021-2027.

      PROPOSED ACT: Council Decision.

      ROLE OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT: the Council adopts the act after consulting the European Parliament but without being obliged to follow its opinion.

      BACKGROUND: Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) have been associated with the European Union since the entry into force of the Treaty of Rome. These 25 islands located in the Atlantic, Antarctic, Arctic, Caribbean, Indian Ocean and Pacific regions are not sovereign countries, but depend on four EU Member States: Denmark, France, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.

      The OCTs are not part of the Union’s customs territory and are outside the internal market. In addition, most OCTs face specific challenges due to their size and remoteness. In this context, the EU has financed territorial and regional European Development Fund (EDF) programmes in the OCTs in previous decades.

      The main source of funding for the current 'Overseas Association Decision' is the 11th EDF which covers programming and financing of territorial and regional programmes for OCTs other than Greenland, which is the subject of a specific decision financed from the EU budget (the Greenland Decision).

      Under the next multiannual financial framework of the Union for the period 2021-2027, it is proposed to regroup a number of external financing instruments into a comprehensive instrument called the neighbourhood, development and international cooperation instrument (NDICI) and to integrate the EDF into the EU budget. Thus, from 1 January 2021, the Union assistance to OCTs previously financed by the European Development Fund (EDF) shall be financed from the general budget of the Union.

      In order to streamline the number of external financing instruments and their performance, the relations with all OCTs, including Greenland, shall be regrouped by replacing the Overseas Association Decision and the Greenland Decision by a single Decision

      CONTENT: this proposal for a Decision aims to establish, for the period 2021-207, an association of the overseas countries and territories (OCTs) with the Union, which shall constitute a partnership aimed at fostering the sustainable development of the OCTs and promote the values and standards of the Union in the wider world.

      The proposed instrument takes account of the exit of the United Kingdom from the European Union on 29 March 2019 effective with the expiration of the transition period on 1 January 2021 and thus does not apply to British OCTs.

      Cooperation with the Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs), including Greenland, shall aim to support and strengthen economic, political and cultural relations between the EU and the Overseas Countries and Territories linked to the EU Member States.

      Priority shall be given to cooperation in areas of mutual interest, such as:

      • the economic diversification of OCTs' economies, including their further integration in world and regional economies;
      • in the specific case of Greenland, the need to increase the skills of its labour force;
      • the promotion of green and blue economy;
      • the sustainable management of natural resources, including the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystem services;
      • climate change mitigation and adaptation to the impacts of climate change;
      • the promotion of disaster risk reduction;
      • the promotion of research, innovation and scientific cooperation activities;
      • the promotion of social, cultural and economic exchanges between the OCTs, their neighbours and other partners;
      • Arctic issues.

      The association is the framework for policy dialogue and cooperation on issues of mutual interest. It shall continue to be based on the three key pillars of enhancing competitiveness, strengthening resilience and reducing vulnerability, and promoting cooperation and integration between the OCTs and other partners and neighbouring regions.

      Without prejudice to the Commission’s prerogatives, the OCT authorities shall have primary responsibility for implementing the operations agreed on under the cooperation strategy. The Commission shall be responsible for establishing the general rules and conditions for these programmes and projects.

      Actions under this programme are expected to contribute 20 % of the overall financial envelope of the programme to climate objectives.

      In principle, the OCTs shall remain eligible, under the next multiannual financial framework, to participate in Union programmes. They shall participate in the thematic programmes and rapid response actions of the neighbourhood, development and international cooperation instrument.

      Proposed budget: the proposed decision earmarks EUR 500 million (in current prices) to the association with the OCTs under the heading ‘Neighbourhood and the world' of the multiannual financial framework for the period 2021-2027.

      Of this amount, EUR 225 million shall be allocated to Greenland and EUR 225 million to the other OCTs, including EUR 159 million for territorial programmes and EUR 66 million for regional programmes.

      In addition an intra-regional financial envelope of EUR 15 million is open to all the OCTs, including Greenland.

      Moreover an amount of EUR 22 million for technical assistance is foreseen in accordance with the new Decision as well as a non-allocated amount of EUR 13 million.

      The financial resources for Greenland shall come from heading 6 of the EU budget: ‘Neighbourhood and the world’. As regards the other OCTs, their financial allocations shall be transferred from the EDF to the ‘Neighbourhood and the World’ heading of the budget.

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          • Repealing Decision 2013/755/EU
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          Association of the overseas countries and territories with the EU including EU/Greenland/Denmark relations 2021–2027
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          • 4.70.06 Outlying and outermost regions, overseas countries and territories