BETA


2010/0204(COD) Professional cross-border transportation of euro cash by road between euro-area Member States

Progress: Procedure completed

RoleCommitteeRapporteurShadows
Lead ECON AUCONIE Sophie (icon: PPE PPE) GOULARD Sylvie (icon: ALDE ALDE)
Committee Opinion EMPL
Committee Opinion TRAN
Lead committee dossier:
Legal Basis:
TFEU 133

Events

2017/01/11
   EC - Follow-up document
Details

The Commission presented a report on the implementation of Regulation (EU) No 1214/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 November 2011 on the professional cross-border transport of euro cash by road between Member States in the euro area.

The report assesses whether Regulation (EU) No 1214/2011 needs to be revised, examining in particular:

the possibility of establishing common training requirements for the carrying of arms by security staff of cash-in-transit ('CIT') companies ; the possibility of amending Article 24 of the Regulation in the light of Directive 96/71/EC on the remuneration of conveyors of funds ; technological progress in the area of intelligent banknote neutralisation systems (IBNS); consider the potential added value of granting Union CIT licences on a group basis.

The main conclusions of the report are as follows :

there is currently no need for common training requirements for the carrying of arms by CIT staff given the diversity of national rules for the carrying of firearms; Article 24 on remuneration should not be amended given the proposed revision of Directive 97/71/EC on the posting of workers in the context of the provision of services to combat unfair practices; no major technological change likely to lead to a revision of Regulation (EU) No 1214/2011 has taken place in the field of IBNS: staining devices are the most commonly used IBNS technologies and should remain the preferred technology on the market in the coming years; lastly, there is no need for a licensing system for each group: Member States’ authorities have not come across any particular problems in connection with the issuance of cross-border licences. Licensing by group would result in a lack of monitoring and control by the cash carriers and would complicate the verification measures in place.

Better use of the potential for cross-border transport of funds: the fact that to date only 25 cross-border transport licences have been granted for a zone of 14 participating Member States shows that the potential of the Regulation is still untapped . Not much cross-border transport seems to be taking place.

With a view to improving the application of the Regulation and to permit the granting of more cross-border licences for the transport of funds, the Commission suggests simplifying the definition of cross-border transport and applying the “Member State of origin principle” to the means of transport. Several interested parties have sought to call into question the principle of the host Member State because it creates barriers to the market which, in their view, cannot be justified on grounds of safety.

Recommendations: participating Member States are recommended to:

put procedures in place to get a better overview on cross-border CIT transport actually taking place in their territory. Better data would contribute to the discussion of possible legislative changes; deploy a wider range of applicable transport arrangements provided for by the Regulation on their territory in order to enhance the potential of cross-border CIT transport.

In addition, an information campaign targeting stakeholders on the demand side of cash (banks, supermarkets, retailers) and money transport companies to encourage greater use of matching transport arrangements should be carried out to contribute to the efficiency of the Regulation and increase the number of CIT licences.

No later than the date of the next review, i.e. 1 December 2021, the Commission must carry out an impact assessment with a view to introducing possible legislative improvements to Regulation (EU) No 1214/2011.

2011/11/29
   Final act published in Official Journal
Details

PURPOSE: to facilitate the professional cross-border transport of euro cash by road between euro-area Member States

LEGISLATIVE ACT: Regulation (EU) No 1214/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the professional cross-border transport of euro cash by road between euro-area Member States.

CONTENT: following agreement in first reading with the European Parliament, the Council adopted a regulation aimed at facilitating the professional cross-border transport of euro cash by road between the Member States of the euro zone.

The new Regulation provides for conditions designed to guarantee the security of the transaction, the safety of the cash-in-transit (CIT) security staff involved and of the public and the free movement of euro cash. This includes the obligation for companies wishing to make cross-border transport of euro cash by road to apply for a cross-border cash-in-transit (CIT) licence from their Member States of origin.

Place of departure, maximum duration and number of euro cash deliveries/pick-ups: cross-border transport of euro cash provided in accordance with this Regulation shall be carried out during the daytime. A CIT vehicle carrying out cross-border transport of euro cash shall start its journey from its Member State of origin and shall return to it on the same day.

By derogation, point-to-point transport may be carried out within a time-slot of 24 hours, provided that night-time transport of euro cash is allowed under national rules of the Member State of origin, of the Member State of transit and of the host Member State.

Cross-border CIT licence : a company wishing to undertake cross-border transport of euro cash by road shall apply for a cross-border CIT licence from the granting authority in its Member State of origin. The cross-border CIT licence shall be granted for a period of 5 years by the national granting authority, provided that the applicant company meets certain conditions. Amongst other things, the applicant company must have a valid civil liability insurance to cover at least third- party damage to life and property, regardless of whether the cash transported is insured thereunder.

Applicant companies established in a Member State which has no specific approval procedure for CIT companies in addition to its general rules for the security or transport sector, must be able to provide evidence that it has had regular business transporting cash for at least 24 months within its Member State of origin prior to the application with no infringements of that Member State’s national law governing such activities.

CIT security staff : staff must: (i) not have a relevant entry in a criminal record and are of good repute and integrity according to, for instance, relevant police records; (ii) have a medical certificate certifying that their physical and mental health is adequate for the task to be performed; (iii) have successfully followed at least 200 hours of ad hoc initial training , not including any training on the use of firearms.

The minimum requirements for the ad hoc initial training are set out in Annex VI.

At least one member of the CIT security staff in the CIT vehicle shall have at least A1-level language skills in the languages used by the local authorities and the population in the relevant areas of the Member State of transit and of the host Member State.

Carrying of weapons : CIT security staff shall comply with the law of the Member State of origin, of the Member State of transit and of the host Member State as regards the carrying of weapons and the maximum permitted calibre. CIT security staff who are armed or who travel in a CIT vehicle with arms on board shall have a professional weapons licence or authorisation issued by the national authorities of the Member State of transit and/or the host Member State, where those Member States allow CIT security staff to be armed.

In the case of a cabin-armoured CIT vehicle equipped with IBNS, or a fully-armoured CIT vehicle not equipped with IBNS, the cabin of the vehicle is equipped with a bullet-proof vest for each member of the CIT security staff on board. The CIT security staff may wear the bullet-proof vests during the transport and shall wear them where required by the law of the Member State where they are situated.

Security: with a view to improving CIT security for both the CIT security staff involved and the public, use of the intelligent banknote neutralisation system (IBNS) should be encouraged and, after a thorough analysis of the potential impacts by the Commission, should be capable of being developed in a manner entailing harmonisation of IBNS among the participating Member States, without prejudice to the rules set out in this Regulation on applicable transport arrangements.

A Member State may decide to introduce temporary security measures going beyond those provided for in this Regulation in the event of an urgent problem affecting significantly the security of CIT operations.

Mutual information : Member States shall submit to the Commission the rules as well as information on which IBNS have been homologated by them and must keep a register of all the companies to which they have delivered a cross-border CIT licence and shall inform the Commission about its content. To facilitate information-sharing, the Commission shall set up a central secured database containing data on licences issued, suspended or withdrawn, which shall be accessible to the relevant authorities of the participating Member States.

Compliance: during the period of validity of a cross-border CIT licence, Member States of origin shall ensure that the rules laid down in this Regulation are complied with, including via random inspections without prior notification to the company. Such inspections may also be carried out by host Member States.

Remuneration of CIT security staff carrying out cross-border transport : CIT security staff carrying out cross-border transport in accordance with this Regulation shall be guaranteed the relevant minimum rates of pay, including overtime rates, in the host Member State in accordance with Directive 96/71/EC.

Review: by 1 December 2016 and every 5 years thereafter, the Commission shall report to the European Parliament and to the Council on the implementation of this Regulation. For that purpose, it shall consult the stakeholders in the sector including the social partners followed by the Member States.

ENTRY INTO FORCE: 29/11/2012.

DELEGATED ACTS: the Commission shall be empowered to adopt delegated acts concerning amendments to Annex II and to the technical rules on the standards applicable to the armouring of CIT vehicles and to bulletproof vests and to weapons strong-boxes, with a view to taking into account technological progress and possible new European standards.

The power to adopt delegated acts is conferred on the Commission for an indeterminate period of time from 30 November 2012. The delegation of power may be revoked at any time by the European Parliament or by the Council. A delegated act shall enter into force only if no objection has been expressed either by the European Parliament or by the Council within a period of 3 months of notification of that act (which may be extended by 3 months at the initiative of the European Parliament or of the Council.

2011/11/16
   CSL - Draft final act
Documents
2011/11/16
   CSL - Final act signed
2011/11/16
   EP - End of procedure in Parliament
2011/11/09
   EC - Commission response to text adopted in plenary
Documents
2011/10/27
   EP/CSL - Act adopted by Council after Parliament's 1st reading
2011/10/27
   CSL - Council Meeting
2011/09/27
   EP - Results of vote in Parliament
2011/09/27
   EP - Decision by Parliament, 1st reading
Details

The European Parliament adopted by 634 votes to 23 with 8 abstentions, a legislative resolution on the proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the professional cross-border transportation of euro cash by road between euro-area Member States.

Parliament adopted its position in first reading in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure. The amendments adopted in plenary are the result of a compromise negotiated between Parliament and Council. The Commission’s proposal was amended as follows:

Subject matter: the text clarifies that the Regulation is designed to allow the professional cross-border transport of euro cash by road between participating Member States under conditions that guarantee the security of the transaction, the safety of the CIT security staff involved and of the public and the free movement of euro cash. In accordance with normal market practice, allows a limited value of non-euro cash to be transported in the same CIT vehicle.

Exclusions: the transport of euro banknotes and coins shall be excluded from the scope of the Regulation where it is(i) a) carried out on the account of, and between, NCBs, or between banknote printing works and/or mints of participating Member States and the relevant NCBs; and b) escorted by the military or the police.

Place of departure, maximum duration and number of euro cash deliveries/pick-ups: by derogation from the Regulation, point-to-point transport may be carried out within a time-slot of 24 hours, provided that night-time transport of euro cash is allowed under national rules of the Member State of origin, of the Member State of transit and of the host Member State. By way of derogation from Regulation (EC) No 1072/2009, there shall be no limit to the number of euro cash deliveries/pick-ups that a CIT vehicle may carry out in a host Member State during the same day.

Cross-border CIT licence : CIT companies established in those participating Member States which do not have a specific approval procedure for CIT-companies in addition to their general rules for the security or transport sectors must demonstrate a minimum experience of 24 months of regularly transporting cash in the Member State of establishment without infringing national law before they are granted a cross-border CIT licence by that Member State. Such an approach would increase mutual confidence between Member States. It must also have a valid civil liability insurance to cover at least third-party damage to life and property, regardless of whether the cash transported is insured thereunder.

The cross-border CIT licence shall be drawn up in accordance with the model and the physical characteristics defined in Annex I .

Training: the minimum requirements of initial training for CIT security staff that carry out cross-border euro cash transport are set out in Annexe VI. CIT security staff shall follow further training activities in the areas set out in point 3 of Annex VI, at least every three years.

At least one member of the CIT security staff in the CIT vehicle shall have at least A1-level language skills in the languages used by the local authorities and the population in the relevant areas of the Member State of transit and of the host Member State.

The CIT vehicle shall, furthermore, be in constant radio contact, via the CIT company's control centre, with someone who has at least B1-level language skills in the languages used by the local authorities and the population in the relevant areas of the Member State of transit and of the host Member State, so as to ensure that effective communication with the national authorities is possible at all times.

Carrying of weapons: CIT security staff shall comply with the law of the Member State of origin, of the Member State of transit and of the host Member State as regards the carrying of weapons and the maximum permitted calibre. CIT security staff who are armed or who travel in a CIT vehicle with arms on board shall (i) have a professional weapons licence or authorisation issued by the national authorities of the Member State of transit and/or the host Member State, where those Member States allow CIT security staff to be armed, and (ii) fulfil all the national requirements for that professional weapons licence or authorisation. For that purpose, Member States may recognise the professional weapons licence or authorisation of the other Member State .

Member States shall establish a single central national contact point to which CIT companies established in other Member States may submit applications for a professional weapons licence or authorisation for their CIT security staff.

Removal of neutralised banknotes from circulation: CIT companies operating under this Regulation shall remove from circulation all banknotes that may have been neutralised that they encounter while carrying out their activities. They shall hand over those banknotes to the appropriate NCB branch of their Member State of origin and provide a written statement on the cause and nature of the neutralisation.

Mutual information: Member States shall keep a register of all the companies to which they have delivered a cross-border CIT licence and shall inform the Commission about its content. To facilitate information-sharing, the Commission shall set up a central secured database containing data on licences issued, suspended or withdrawn, which shall be accessible to the relevant authorities of the participating Member States.

A company holding or having submitted an application for a cross-border CIT licence shall inform the granting authority at least two months before it begins its cross-border activity of the Member States in which it will carry out CIT transport. The Member State of origin shall subsequently immediately notify the Member States concerned that the cross-border activity is to start.

Applicable transport arrangements: with respect to the cross-border transport of euro banknotes by road carried out on its territory, each Member State shall allow:

at least one of the five options laid down in the text; and those options laid down in the Regulation that are comparable to the transport arrangements allowed for domestic CIT transport.

Transport which includes both euro banknotes and coins shall be covered by the transport arrangements for the cross-border transport of euro banknotes.

Regarding the transport of banknotes, a Member State may decide that only end-to-end IBNS may be used on its territory for the servicing of off-premises ATMs or other types of off-premises cash dispensers, provided that the same rules apply for domestic CIT transport.

Participating Member States shall notify the Commission of the transport arrangements which are applicable. The Commission shall publish a corresponding information notice in the Official Journal of the European Union. The applicable transport arrangements shall take effect one month after publication of the information notice.

If a host Member State or a Member State of transit finds that an IBNS displays serious deficiencies as regards the technical characteristics normally required, namely that the cash can be accessed without triggering the neutralisation mechanism or the IBNS has been modified after homologation in such a way that it no longer fulfils the homologation criteria, it shall inform the Commission and the Member State that granted the homologation and may ask that new tests be carried out on that IBNS.

Pending the results of those new tests, Member States may provisionally prohibit the use of those IBNS on their territory. They shall, without delay, inform the Commission and the other participating Member States thereof.

In the case of a cabin-armoured CIT vehicle equipped with IBNS, or a fully-armoured CIT vehicle not equipped with IBNS, the cabin of the vehicle is equipped with a bullet-proof vest for each member of the CIT security staff on board. The CIT security staff may wear the bullet-proof vests referred to in point (c) during the transport and shall wear them where required by the law of the Member State where they are situated.

Compliance: during the period of validity of a cross-border CIT licence, Member States of origin shall ensure that the rules laid down in the Regulation are complied with, including via random inspections without prior notification to the company. Such inspections may also be carried out by host Member States.

Security: with a view to improving CIT security both for the staff involved and for the public, use of the intelligent banknote neutralisation system (IBNS) should be encouraged and, after a thorough impact assessment by the Commission, should be capable of being developed in a manner entailing harmonisation of IBNS among the participating Member States.

Review: four years after the entry into force of the Regulation, the Commission shall on the implementation of the Regulation, having consulted the stakeholders in the sector including the social partners followed by the Member States. The report shall, in particular, (i) examine the possibility of establishing common training requirements for the carrying of arms by CIT security staff and of amending Article 24 in the light of Directive 96/71/EC, take due account of technological progress in the area of IBNS, and (ii) consider the potential added value of granting Union CIT licences on a group basis and assess whether this Regulation needs to be revised accordingly.

Delegated acts: the Commission is empowered to adopt acts in accordance with Article 290 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) in respect of the amendment of the technical rules on standards in regard to the IBNS, the armouring of CIT vehicles, bullet-proof vests and weapons strong-boxes.

Documents
2011/03/22
   EP - Committee report tabled for plenary, 1st reading/single reading
Documents
2011/03/22
   EP - Committee report tabled for plenary, 1st reading
Documents
2011/03/16
   EP - Vote in committee, 1st reading
Details

The Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs adopted the report by Sophie AUCONIE (EPP, FR) on the proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the professional cross-border transportation of euro cash by road between euro-area Member States.

It recommended that the European Parliament’s position at first reading under the ordinary legislative procedure should be to amend the Commission proposal as follows:

National authorisation for certain types of cash transportation : in relation to the cross-border transportation of euro notes by road on its territory, each Member State shall authorise :

(a) at least one of the options set out amongst five modes of transport of notes and tow modes of transport for coins presented in the Regulation;

(b) those options set out in the Regulation for the transport of notes and coins which are comparable to the transport modalities authorised for national cash transportation.

Transport operations involving both coins and notes shall be covered by the modalities for the cross-border transportation of notes.

As regards the transport of notes, a Member State may decide that only end-to-end IBNS may be used on its territory for the servicing of off-premises ATMs, provided that the same rules apply for domestic CIT transports.

The Member States shall notify the Commission of the transport modalities applied in accordance with this Article. The Commission shall publish an information notice accordingly in the Official Journal of the European Union. The transport modalities applicable shall take effect one month after publication of the information notice.

It should be noted that Members suggest deleting Article 20 of the proposal concerning national delegations .

Adequate level of experience : Members consider that, in order to do cross-border work, companies must have an adequate minimum level of experience. Thus, it is appropriate that CIT-companies established in these Member States should demonstrate a minimum experience of 24 months of regularly transporting cash in the Member State where they are established without infringements of the national legislation before they may be granted a cross-border licence by this Member State.

Mutual information : Member States shall inform the Commission of the content of the register of all the companies to which they have delivered a CIT cross-border licence. A company holding a CIT cross-border licence shall inform the granting authority, at least three months before it begins its cross-border activity , about the Member States(s) in which it will carry out CIT-transport.

Security : with a view to improving CIT security both for the staff involved and for the public, use of the intelligent banknote neutralisation system (IBNS) should be encouraged and, after a thorough impact assessment by the Commission, should be capable of being developed in a manner entailing harmonisation of IBNS among the participating Member States.

Report : the Commission shall report to the European Parliament and the Council on the implementation of this Regulation four years (as opposed to two years) after its entry into effect at the latest and, thereafter, once every five years. The report should also consider the potential added value of granting European CIT licences on a group basis.

Delegated acts : the European Parliament and the Council may object to the delegated act within a period of 3 months from the date of notification. At the initiative of the European Parliament or the Council this period shall be extended by three months .

The Commission shall consult the social partners before adopting delegated acts.

2011/01/27
   EP - Amendments tabled in committee
Documents
2010/11/19
   EP - Committee draft report
Documents
2010/11/09
   IT_SENATE - Contribution
Documents
2010/10/27
   PT_PARLIAMENT - Contribution
Documents
2010/10/05
   ECB - European Central Bank: opinion, guideline, report
Details

OPINION OF THE EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK on two proposals for regulations on the professional cross-border transportation of euro cash by road between euro-area Member States

On 6 September 2010, the European Central Bank (ECB) received a request from the European Parliament for an opinion on a proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the professional cross-border transportation of euro cash by road between euro-area Member States (proposed Regulation). On 20 September 2010, the ECB also received a request from the Council of the European Union for an opinion on the proposed regulation.

On 27 September 2010, the ECB received a request from the Council of the European Union for an opinion on a proposal for a Council regulation concerning the extension of the scope of the European Parliament and Council Regulation on the professional cross-border transportation of euro cash by road between euro-area Member States (proposed extending regulation).

General observations

The ECB is of the opinion that the proposed regulations will maximise the benefits of remote access to national central bank cash services by making the circulation and transport of euro banknotes and coins between euro-area Member States as free as possible. This is important as only euro banknotes and coins have the status of legal tender within the euro area.

The notion of legal tender is also of particular importance with regard to the use of ‘Intelligent Banknote Neutralisation Systems’, as defined by the proposed regulation. As the authority having the exclusive right to authorise the issue of legal tender euro banknotes, the ECB notes that ‘neutralised’ euro banknotes retain their legal tender status and that this has already been accepted by the Commission.

As regards the proposed extending regulation concerning non-euro area Member States, the ECB supports continuing the practice already established prior to the Treaty’s entry into force. More specifically, all provisions of the proposed regulation should be extended to such Member States. Non-euro area Member States cannot be ‘Member States of origin’ or ‘host Member States’ in the sense of the proposed regulation. They should, moreover, be eligible to become ‘Member States crossed’; if this is not the case, euro-area Member States that can only be accessed by roads that cross through non-euro area Member States would be unduly discriminated against.

Where the ECB recommends that the proposed regulations are amended, specific drafting proposals are set out in the Annex accompanied by explanatory text to this effect.

2010/09/07
   EP - Committee referral announced in Parliament, 1st reading
2010/09/06
   EP - AUCONIE Sophie (PPE) appointed as rapporteur in ECON
2010/07/14
   EC - Document attached to the procedure
Details

The purpose of the present proposal is to extend the scope of the Proposal for a Regulation on the cross-border transportation of euro cash by road between euro-area Member States to the territory of a Member State that is about to introduce the euro , since there will normally be an increased need for cross-border euro cash transportation in the run-up to the changeover.

The extension of the Regulation should be automatic and take effect as from the date when the Council decides to lift the derogation of a Member State from its participation in the euro.

The main proposal is based on Article 133 where voting rights in the Council are limited to Member States that have already adopted the euro. Since this proposal concerns Member States that have not yet adopted the euro, it is based on Article 352. This is appropriate since action by the Union is necessary in order to facilitate a smooth changeover to the euro.

2010/07/14
   EC - Document attached to the procedure
2010/07/14
   EC - Document attached to the procedure
2010/07/14
   EC - Legislative proposal published
Details

PURPOSE: to allow professional cross-border transportation of euro cash by road between participating Member States under conditions that guarantee the security of the transaction, the safety of the staff involved and of the public and the free movement of currency.

PROPOSED ACT: Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council.

BACKGROUND: the introduction of the euro has considerably increased the need for cross-border transportation of cash by road. However, due to incompatibilities between national legislations it is in most cases very difficult for professional cash transporters to move euro cash between euro-area Member States and very little cross-border land transportation therefore takes place. Regulatory differences concern a wide range of issues such as the possession and carrying of firearms by the cash-in-transit (CIT) staff, authorised transport modalities, armouring and equipment of the CIT-vehicles, number of staff in the vehicles etc. The current regulatory obstacles moreover imply a fragmentation of the single market in this sector.

The European Central Bank, the banking sector and the large retail sector have repeatedly called for the launch of an initiative aimed at lifting the obstacles to the professional cross border transportation by road of euro cash in Europe.

On this basis, the Commission adopted a White Paper on professional cross-border transportation of euro cash by road between Member States in the euro area in May 2009.

IMPACT ASSESSMENT: five broad options were considered:

Option 1 : a baseline no-change scenario; Option 2 : bilateral/multilateral agreements between those Member States potentially most concerned by cross-border transports; Option 3 : a set of common rules for cross-border transports only; Option 4 : full mutual recognition; and Option 5 : full harmonisation of the regulation of all CIT-transport.

The detailed analysis of impacts concerns option 3 : a set of common rules for cross-border transport. This option would meet the objective of facilitating the free circulation of euro cash. Since it is limited to cross-border transports it would furthermore not go beyond what is necessary to achieve the objectives.

Three sub-options are moreover considered: (i) extending the scope of the rules to EU Member States outside the current euro area; (ii) extending the scope to other cash and valuables; and (iii) restricting the scope to point-to-point transports only.

As regards the sub-options, it is concluded that the common rules should apply also to the territory of EU Member States that are about to introduce the euro as from the date of the decision of the Council to abrogate their derogation from participating in the euro.

LEGAL BASIS: Article 133 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). Action at EU level brings important economies of scale as compared to bilateral or multilateral action.

CONTENT: the proposed Regulation lays down a set of common rules for the professional cross-border transport of euro cash within the euro area. It is based on the principle of a specific cross-border CIT-licence which would be granted by the Member State of origin to CIT-companies whishing to transport euro cash across borders. Seven different authorised transport types are foreseen – five for the transport of banknotes and two for the transport of coins – with possibilities for Member Sates to opt out from specific options for their territory.

In terms of scope, the following elements are noteworthy:

the proposed Regulation would apply to the professional transport of euro cash by road between euro-area Member States. It is also foreseen that the territory of Member States which have not yet introduced the euro are covered by the Regulation as from the date of the Council decision to abrogate their derogation from participating in the euro. The extension of the scope of the Regulation is the subject of a separate proposed Regulation; the proposed Regulation would apply both to so-called point-to-point transports (i.e. transports from one secure location to another secure location with no intermediate stops) and so-called retail transports of cash (multi-stops transports servicing final customers); for retail transports, the majority of the stops must take place in the host Member State(s), whereas there is no limit to the number of stops that can be made in either the Member State of origin or the host Member State; the transports must as a rule be carried out during daytime, with exceptions foreseen for point-to point transports; the CIT-vehicle must return to its Member State of origin within the same day.

The CIT cross-border licence : C IT-companies whishing to undertake cross-border transport of cash under the terms of the Regulation must apply for a specific licence from the granting authority of their Member State of origin. To obtain the licence, the company, its management and its staff will have to meet a certain number of conditions laid down in the Regulation. In case of infringement of the rules, the sanctioning power belongs to the authority that granted the licence, i.e. the authority of the Member State of origin. However, safeguarding powers are granted to the Member State crossed or the host Member State in case of emergency or manifest breaches of the rules (e.g. minimum number of staff not respected, infringement of the rules on the carrying of weapons etc). Member States furthermore have a duty of mutual information on all these aspects.

Authorised transport types

F or banknotes , the following five transport types would be authorised for the cross-border transport of cash:

transportation of banknotes in an unarmoured vehicle of ordinary appearance equipped with a system of neutralisation of banknotes (IBNS); transportation of banknotes in an unarmoured vehicle with a clear marking indicating that it is equipped with IBNS; transportation of banknotes in a cabin-armoured vehicle equipped with IBNS; transportation of banknotes in a fully-armoured vehicle not equipped with IBNS; transportation of banknotes in a fully-armoured vehicle equipped with IBNS.

For coins , the following two transport types are foreseen:

transportation of coins in an unarmoured vehicle; transportation of coins in a cabin-armoured vehicle.

In all cases, there must be at least two security staff in the vehicle, except for transport in a fully-armoured vehicle without IBNS where three security staff are required. Member States may choose to close down the use of certain options for their territory as long as they accept at least one of the above-listed options for banknotes and one of the above-listed options for coins and as long as they do not allow comparable transport modalities for domestic CIT-transports.

Application of national rules : in particularly sensitive areas from the point of view of security, national rules would continue to apply. These areas concern the carrying and use of weapons, the relationship with the police forces and the rules governing the behaviour of the CIT security staff outside the CIT-vehicle as well as the security of the locations where the cash is delivered or picked up.

BUDGETARY IMPLICATION: the proposal has no negative impact on the EU budget.

Documents

AmendmentsDossier
1 2010/0204(COD)
2011/01/27 ECON 1 amendments...
source: PE-456.920

History

(these mark the time of scraping, not the official date of the change)

docs/0
date
2010-07-14T00:00:00
docs
summary
type
Preparatory document
body
EC
docs/0/type
Old
Preparatory document
New
Document attached to the procedure
docs/2
date
2010-07-14T00:00:00
docs
summary
type
Preparatory document
body
EC
docs/4/docs/0/url
Old
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=COMPARL&mode=XML&language=EN&reference=PE454.357
New
https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/ECON-PR-454357_EN.html
docs/5/docs/0/url
Old
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=COMPARL&mode=XML&language=EN&reference=PE456.920
New
https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/ECON-AM-456920_EN.html
docs/6/docs/0/url
Old
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/A-7-2011-0076_EN.html
New
https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/A-7-2011-0076_EN.html
docs/7/docs/0/url
/oeil/spdoc.do?i=19835&j=0&l=en
events/0/docs/0/url
Old
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/registre/docs_autres_institutions/commission_europeenne/com/2010/0377/COM_COM(2010)0377_EN.pdf
New
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/docs_autres_institutions/commission_europeenne/com/2010/0377/COM_COM(2010)0377_EN.pdf
events/1/type
Old
Committee referral announced in Parliament, 1st reading/single reading
New
Committee referral announced in Parliament, 1st reading
events/2/type
Old
Vote in committee, 1st reading/single reading
New
Vote in committee, 1st reading
events/3
date
2011-03-22T00:00:00
type
Committee report tabled for plenary, 1st reading
body
EP
docs
url: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/A-7-2011-0076_EN.html title: A7-0076/2011
events/3
date
2011-03-22T00:00:00
type
Committee report tabled for plenary, 1st reading/single reading
body
EP
docs
url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/A-7-2011-0076_EN.html title: A7-0076/2011
events/5
date
2011-09-27T00:00:00
type
Decision by Parliament, 1st reading
body
EP
docs
url: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/TA-7-2011-0405_EN.html title: T7-0405/2011
summary
events/5
date
2011-09-27T00:00:00
type
Decision by Parliament, 1st reading/single reading
body
EP
docs
url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/TA-7-2011-0405_EN.html title: T7-0405/2011
summary
procedure/Modified legal basis
Rules of Procedure EP 150
procedure/Other legal basis
Rules of Procedure EP 159
committees/0
type
Responsible Committee
body
EP
associated
False
committee_full
Economic and Monetary Affairs
committee
ECON
rapporteur
name: AUCONIE Sophie date: 2010-09-06T00:00:00 group: European People's Party (Christian Democrats) abbr: PPE
shadows
name: GOULARD Sylvie group: Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe abbr: ALDE
committees/0
type
Responsible Committee
body
EP
associated
False
committee_full
Economic and Monetary Affairs
committee
ECON
date
2010-09-06T00:00:00
rapporteur
name: AUCONIE Sophie group: European People's Party (Christian Democrats) abbr: PPE
shadows
name: GOULARD Sylvie group: Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe abbr: ALDE
docs/0
date
2010-07-14T00:00:00
docs
summary
type
Initial legislative proposal
body
EC
docs/2
date
2010-07-14T00:00:00
docs
summary
type
Initial legislative proposal
body
EC
docs/2/type
Old
Initial legislative proposal
New
Preparatory document
docs/6/docs/0/url
Old
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=REPORT&mode=XML&reference=A7-2011-76&language=EN
New
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/A-7-2011-0076_EN.html
docs/7/body
EC
events/0/docs/0/url
Old
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/docs_autres_institutions/commission_europeenne/com/2010/0377/COM_COM(2010)0377_EN.pdf
New
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/registre/docs_autres_institutions/commission_europeenne/com/2010/0377/COM_COM(2010)0377_EN.pdf
events/3/docs/0/url
Old
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=REPORT&mode=XML&reference=A7-2011-76&language=EN
New
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/A-7-2011-0076_EN.html
events/5/docs/0/url
Old
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&language=EN&reference=P7-TA-2011-405
New
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/TA-7-2011-0405_EN.html
activities
  • date: 2010-07-14T00:00:00 docs: url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/docs_autres_institutions/commission_europeenne/com/2010/0377/COM_COM(2010)0377_EN.pdf title: COM(2010)0377 type: Legislative proposal published celexid: CELEX:52010PC0377:EN body: EC commission: DG: url: http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/economy_finance/index_en.htm title: Economic and Financial Affairs Commissioner: REHN Olli type: Legislative proposal published
  • date: 2010-09-07T00:00:00 body: EP type: Committee referral announced in Parliament, 1st reading/single reading committees: body: EP shadows: group: ALDE name: GOULARD Sylvie responsible: True committee: ECON date: 2010-09-06T00:00:00 committee_full: Economic and Monetary Affairs rapporteur: group: PPE name: AUCONIE Sophie body: EP responsible: False committee_full: Employment and Social Affairs committee: EMPL body: EP responsible: False committee_full: Transport and Tourism committee: TRAN
  • date: 2011-03-16T00:00:00 body: EP committees: body: EP shadows: group: ALDE name: GOULARD Sylvie responsible: True committee: ECON date: 2010-09-06T00:00:00 committee_full: Economic and Monetary Affairs rapporteur: group: PPE name: AUCONIE Sophie body: EP responsible: False committee_full: Employment and Social Affairs committee: EMPL body: EP responsible: False committee_full: Transport and Tourism committee: TRAN type: Vote in committee, 1st reading/single reading
  • date: 2011-03-22T00:00:00 docs: url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=REPORT&mode=XML&reference=A7-2011-76&language=EN type: Committee report tabled for plenary, 1st reading/single reading title: A7-0076/2011 body: EP committees: body: EP shadows: group: ALDE name: GOULARD Sylvie responsible: True committee: ECON date: 2010-09-06T00:00:00 committee_full: Economic and Monetary Affairs rapporteur: group: PPE name: AUCONIE Sophie body: EP responsible: False committee_full: Employment and Social Affairs committee: EMPL body: EP responsible: False committee_full: Transport and Tourism committee: TRAN type: Committee report tabled for plenary, 1st reading/single reading
  • date: 2011-09-27T00:00:00 docs: url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/oeil/popups/sda.do?id=19835&l=en type: Results of vote in Parliament title: Results of vote in Parliament url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&language=EN&reference=P7-TA-2011-405 type: Decision by Parliament, 1st reading/single reading title: T7-0405/2011 body: EP type: Results of vote in Parliament
  • date: 2011-10-27T00:00:00 body: CSL type: Council Meeting council: Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) meeting_id: 3121
  • date: 2011-10-27T00:00:00 body: EP/CSL type: Act adopted by Council after Parliament's 1st reading
  • date: 2011-11-16T00:00:00 body: CSL type: Final act signed
  • date: 2011-11-16T00:00:00 body: EP type: End of procedure in Parliament
  • date: 2011-11-29T00:00:00 type: Final act published in Official Journal docs: url: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexplus!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=EN&numdoc=32011R1214 title: Regulation 2011/1214 url: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=OJ:L:2011:316:TOC title: OJ L 316 29.11.2011, p. 0001
commission
  • body: EC dg: Economic and Financial Affairs commissioner: REHN Olli
committees/0
type
Responsible Committee
body
EP
associated
False
committee_full
Economic and Monetary Affairs
committee
ECON
date
2010-09-06T00:00:00
rapporteur
name: AUCONIE Sophie group: European People's Party (Christian Democrats) abbr: PPE
shadows
name: GOULARD Sylvie group: Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe abbr: ALDE
committees/0
body
EP
shadows
group: ALDE name: GOULARD Sylvie
responsible
True
committee
ECON
date
2010-09-06T00:00:00
committee_full
Economic and Monetary Affairs
rapporteur
group: PPE name: AUCONIE Sophie
committees/1
type
Committee Opinion
body
EP
associated
False
committee_full
Employment and Social Affairs
committee
EMPL
opinion
False
committees/1
body
EP
responsible
False
committee_full
Employment and Social Affairs
committee
EMPL
committees/2
type
Committee Opinion
body
EP
associated
False
committee_full
Transport and Tourism
committee
TRAN
opinion
False
committees/2
body
EP
responsible
False
committee_full
Transport and Tourism
committee
TRAN
council
  • body: CSL type: Council Meeting council: Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) meeting_id: 3121 url: http://register.consilium.europa.eu/content/out?lang=EN&typ=SET&i=SMPL&ROWSPP=25&RESULTSET=1&NRROWS=500&DOC_LANCD=EN&ORDERBY=DOC_DATE+DESC&CONTENTS=3121*&MEET_DATE=27/10/2011 date: 2011-10-27T00:00:00
docs
  • date: 2010-07-14T00:00:00 docs: url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/docs_autres_institutions/commission_europeenne/com/2010/0376/COM_COM(2010)0376_EN.doc title: COM(2010)0376 url: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexplus!prod!DocNumber&lg=EN&type_doc=COMfinal&an_doc=2010&nu_doc=376 title: EUR-Lex summary: The purpose of the present proposal is to extend the scope of the Proposal for a Regulation on the cross-border transportation of euro cash by road between euro-area Member States to the territory of a Member State that is about to introduce the euro , since there will normally be an increased need for cross-border euro cash transportation in the run-up to the changeover. The extension of the Regulation should be automatic and take effect as from the date when the Council decides to lift the derogation of a Member State from its participation in the euro. The main proposal is based on Article 133 where voting rights in the Council are limited to Member States that have already adopted the euro. Since this proposal concerns Member States that have not yet adopted the euro, it is based on Article 352. This is appropriate since action by the Union is necessary in order to facilitate a smooth changeover to the euro. type: Initial legislative proposal body: EC
  • date: 2010-07-14T00:00:00 docs: url: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexplus!prod!DocNumber&lg=EN&type_doc=SECfinal&an_doc=2010&nu_doc=877 title: EUR-Lex title: SEC(2010)0877 type: Document attached to the procedure body: EC
  • date: 2010-07-14T00:00:00 docs: url: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexplus!prod!DocNumber&lg=EN&type_doc=SECfinal&an_doc=2010&nu_doc=878 title: EUR-Lex title: SEC(2010)0878 type: Document attached to the procedure body: EC
  • date: 2010-10-05T00:00:00 docs: url: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:52010AB0072:EN:NOT title: CON/2010/0072 url: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=OJ:C:2010:278:TOC title: OJ C 278 15.10.2010, p. 0001 summary: OPINION OF THE EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK on two proposals for regulations on the professional cross-border transportation of euro cash by road between euro-area Member States On 6 September 2010, the European Central Bank (ECB) received a request from the European Parliament for an opinion on a proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the professional cross-border transportation of euro cash by road between euro-area Member States (proposed Regulation). On 20 September 2010, the ECB also received a request from the Council of the European Union for an opinion on the proposed regulation. On 27 September 2010, the ECB received a request from the Council of the European Union for an opinion on a proposal for a Council regulation concerning the extension of the scope of the European Parliament and Council Regulation on the professional cross-border transportation of euro cash by road between euro-area Member States (proposed extending regulation). General observations The ECB is of the opinion that the proposed regulations will maximise the benefits of remote access to national central bank cash services by making the circulation and transport of euro banknotes and coins between euro-area Member States as free as possible. This is important as only euro banknotes and coins have the status of legal tender within the euro area. The notion of legal tender is also of particular importance with regard to the use of ‘Intelligent Banknote Neutralisation Systems’, as defined by the proposed regulation. As the authority having the exclusive right to authorise the issue of legal tender euro banknotes, the ECB notes that ‘neutralised’ euro banknotes retain their legal tender status and that this has already been accepted by the Commission. As regards the proposed extending regulation concerning non-euro area Member States, the ECB supports continuing the practice already established prior to the Treaty’s entry into force. More specifically, all provisions of the proposed regulation should be extended to such Member States. Non-euro area Member States cannot be ‘Member States of origin’ or ‘host Member States’ in the sense of the proposed regulation. They should, moreover, be eligible to become ‘Member States crossed’; if this is not the case, euro-area Member States that can only be accessed by roads that cross through non-euro area Member States would be unduly discriminated against. Where the ECB recommends that the proposed regulations are amended, specific drafting proposals are set out in the Annex accompanied by explanatory text to this effect. type: European Central Bank: opinion, guideline, report body: ECB
  • date: 2010-11-19T00:00:00 docs: url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=COMPARL&mode=XML&language=EN&reference=PE454.357 title: PE454.357 type: Committee draft report body: EP
  • date: 2011-01-27T00:00:00 docs: url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=COMPARL&mode=XML&language=EN&reference=PE456.920 title: PE456.920 type: Amendments tabled in committee body: EP
  • date: 2011-03-22T00:00:00 docs: url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=REPORT&mode=XML&reference=A7-2011-76&language=EN title: A7-0076/2011 type: Committee report tabled for plenary, 1st reading/single reading body: EP
  • date: 2011-11-09T00:00:00 docs: url: /oeil/spdoc.do?i=19835&j=0&l=en title: SP(2011)8584 type: Commission response to text adopted in plenary
  • date: 2011-11-16T00:00:00 docs: url: http://register.consilium.europa.eu/content/out?lang=EN&typ=SET&i=ADV&RESULTSET=1&DOC_ID=[%n4]%2F11&DOC_LANCD=EN&ROWSPP=25&NRROWS=500&ORDERBY=DOC_DATE+DESC title: 00018/2011/LEX type: Draft final act body: CSL
  • date: 2017-01-11T00:00:00 docs: url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/docs_autres_institutions/commission_europeenne/com/2017/0005/COM_COM(2017)0005(ANN)_EN.pdf title: COM(2017)0005 url: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexplus!prod!DocNumber&lg=EN&type_doc=COMfinal&an_doc=2017&nu_doc=0005 title: EUR-Lex summary: The Commission presented a report on the implementation of Regulation (EU) No 1214/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 November 2011 on the professional cross-border transport of euro cash by road between Member States in the euro area. The report assesses whether Regulation (EU) No 1214/2011 needs to be revised, examining in particular: the possibility of establishing common training requirements for the carrying of arms by security staff of cash-in-transit ('CIT') companies ; the possibility of amending Article 24 of the Regulation in the light of Directive 96/71/EC on the remuneration of conveyors of funds ; technological progress in the area of intelligent banknote neutralisation systems (IBNS); consider the potential added value of granting Union CIT licences on a group basis. The main conclusions of the report are as follows : there is currently no need for common training requirements for the carrying of arms by CIT staff given the diversity of national rules for the carrying of firearms; Article 24 on remuneration should not be amended given the proposed revision of Directive 97/71/EC on the posting of workers in the context of the provision of services to combat unfair practices; no major technological change likely to lead to a revision of Regulation (EU) No 1214/2011 has taken place in the field of IBNS: staining devices are the most commonly used IBNS technologies and should remain the preferred technology on the market in the coming years; lastly, there is no need for a licensing system for each group: Member States’ authorities have not come across any particular problems in connection with the issuance of cross-border licences. Licensing by group would result in a lack of monitoring and control by the cash carriers and would complicate the verification measures in place. Better use of the potential for cross-border transport of funds: the fact that to date only 25 cross-border transport licences have been granted for a zone of 14 participating Member States shows that the potential of the Regulation is still untapped . Not much cross-border transport seems to be taking place. With a view to improving the application of the Regulation and to permit the granting of more cross-border licences for the transport of funds, the Commission suggests simplifying the definition of cross-border transport and applying the “Member State of origin principle” to the means of transport. Several interested parties have sought to call into question the principle of the host Member State because it creates barriers to the market which, in their view, cannot be justified on grounds of safety. Recommendations: participating Member States are recommended to: put procedures in place to get a better overview on cross-border CIT transport actually taking place in their territory. Better data would contribute to the discussion of possible legislative changes; deploy a wider range of applicable transport arrangements provided for by the Regulation on their territory in order to enhance the potential of cross-border CIT transport. In addition, an information campaign targeting stakeholders on the demand side of cash (banks, supermarkets, retailers) and money transport companies to encourage greater use of matching transport arrangements should be carried out to contribute to the efficiency of the Regulation and increase the number of CIT licences. No later than the date of the next review, i.e. 1 December 2021, the Commission must carry out an impact assessment with a view to introducing possible legislative improvements to Regulation (EU) No 1214/2011. type: Follow-up document body: EC
  • date: 2010-11-09T00:00:00 docs: url: http://www.connefof.europarl.europa.eu/connefof/app/exp/COM(2010)0376 title: COM(2010)0376 type: Contribution body: IT_SENATE
  • date: 2010-10-27T00:00:00 docs: url: http://www.connefof.europarl.europa.eu/connefof/app/exp/COM(2010)0376 title: COM(2010)0376 type: Contribution body: PT_PARLIAMENT
events
  • date: 2010-07-14T00:00:00 type: Legislative proposal published body: EC docs: url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/docs_autres_institutions/commission_europeenne/com/2010/0377/COM_COM(2010)0377_EN.pdf title: COM(2010)0377 url: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexplus!prod!DocNumber&lg=EN&type_doc=COMfinal&an_doc=2010&nu_doc=377 title: EUR-Lex summary: PURPOSE: to allow professional cross-border transportation of euro cash by road between participating Member States under conditions that guarantee the security of the transaction, the safety of the staff involved and of the public and the free movement of currency. PROPOSED ACT: Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council. BACKGROUND: the introduction of the euro has considerably increased the need for cross-border transportation of cash by road. However, due to incompatibilities between national legislations it is in most cases very difficult for professional cash transporters to move euro cash between euro-area Member States and very little cross-border land transportation therefore takes place. Regulatory differences concern a wide range of issues such as the possession and carrying of firearms by the cash-in-transit (CIT) staff, authorised transport modalities, armouring and equipment of the CIT-vehicles, number of staff in the vehicles etc. The current regulatory obstacles moreover imply a fragmentation of the single market in this sector. The European Central Bank, the banking sector and the large retail sector have repeatedly called for the launch of an initiative aimed at lifting the obstacles to the professional cross border transportation by road of euro cash in Europe. On this basis, the Commission adopted a White Paper on professional cross-border transportation of euro cash by road between Member States in the euro area in May 2009. IMPACT ASSESSMENT: five broad options were considered: Option 1 : a baseline no-change scenario; Option 2 : bilateral/multilateral agreements between those Member States potentially most concerned by cross-border transports; Option 3 : a set of common rules for cross-border transports only; Option 4 : full mutual recognition; and Option 5 : full harmonisation of the regulation of all CIT-transport. The detailed analysis of impacts concerns option 3 : a set of common rules for cross-border transport. This option would meet the objective of facilitating the free circulation of euro cash. Since it is limited to cross-border transports it would furthermore not go beyond what is necessary to achieve the objectives. Three sub-options are moreover considered: (i) extending the scope of the rules to EU Member States outside the current euro area; (ii) extending the scope to other cash and valuables; and (iii) restricting the scope to point-to-point transports only. As regards the sub-options, it is concluded that the common rules should apply also to the territory of EU Member States that are about to introduce the euro as from the date of the decision of the Council to abrogate their derogation from participating in the euro. LEGAL BASIS: Article 133 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). Action at EU level brings important economies of scale as compared to bilateral or multilateral action. CONTENT: the proposed Regulation lays down a set of common rules for the professional cross-border transport of euro cash within the euro area. It is based on the principle of a specific cross-border CIT-licence which would be granted by the Member State of origin to CIT-companies whishing to transport euro cash across borders. Seven different authorised transport types are foreseen – five for the transport of banknotes and two for the transport of coins – with possibilities for Member Sates to opt out from specific options for their territory. In terms of scope, the following elements are noteworthy: the proposed Regulation would apply to the professional transport of euro cash by road between euro-area Member States. It is also foreseen that the territory of Member States which have not yet introduced the euro are covered by the Regulation as from the date of the Council decision to abrogate their derogation from participating in the euro. The extension of the scope of the Regulation is the subject of a separate proposed Regulation; the proposed Regulation would apply both to so-called point-to-point transports (i.e. transports from one secure location to another secure location with no intermediate stops) and so-called retail transports of cash (multi-stops transports servicing final customers); for retail transports, the majority of the stops must take place in the host Member State(s), whereas there is no limit to the number of stops that can be made in either the Member State of origin or the host Member State; the transports must as a rule be carried out during daytime, with exceptions foreseen for point-to point transports; the CIT-vehicle must return to its Member State of origin within the same day. The CIT cross-border licence : C IT-companies whishing to undertake cross-border transport of cash under the terms of the Regulation must apply for a specific licence from the granting authority of their Member State of origin. To obtain the licence, the company, its management and its staff will have to meet a certain number of conditions laid down in the Regulation. In case of infringement of the rules, the sanctioning power belongs to the authority that granted the licence, i.e. the authority of the Member State of origin. However, safeguarding powers are granted to the Member State crossed or the host Member State in case of emergency or manifest breaches of the rules (e.g. minimum number of staff not respected, infringement of the rules on the carrying of weapons etc). Member States furthermore have a duty of mutual information on all these aspects. Authorised transport types F or banknotes , the following five transport types would be authorised for the cross-border transport of cash: transportation of banknotes in an unarmoured vehicle of ordinary appearance equipped with a system of neutralisation of banknotes (IBNS); transportation of banknotes in an unarmoured vehicle with a clear marking indicating that it is equipped with IBNS; transportation of banknotes in a cabin-armoured vehicle equipped with IBNS; transportation of banknotes in a fully-armoured vehicle not equipped with IBNS; transportation of banknotes in a fully-armoured vehicle equipped with IBNS. For coins , the following two transport types are foreseen: transportation of coins in an unarmoured vehicle; transportation of coins in a cabin-armoured vehicle. In all cases, there must be at least two security staff in the vehicle, except for transport in a fully-armoured vehicle without IBNS where three security staff are required. Member States may choose to close down the use of certain options for their territory as long as they accept at least one of the above-listed options for banknotes and one of the above-listed options for coins and as long as they do not allow comparable transport modalities for domestic CIT-transports. Application of national rules : in particularly sensitive areas from the point of view of security, national rules would continue to apply. These areas concern the carrying and use of weapons, the relationship with the police forces and the rules governing the behaviour of the CIT security staff outside the CIT-vehicle as well as the security of the locations where the cash is delivered or picked up. BUDGETARY IMPLICATION: the proposal has no negative impact on the EU budget.
  • date: 2010-09-07T00:00:00 type: Committee referral announced in Parliament, 1st reading/single reading body: EP
  • date: 2011-03-16T00:00:00 type: Vote in committee, 1st reading/single reading body: EP summary: The Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs adopted the report by Sophie AUCONIE (EPP, FR) on the proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the professional cross-border transportation of euro cash by road between euro-area Member States. It recommended that the European Parliament’s position at first reading under the ordinary legislative procedure should be to amend the Commission proposal as follows: National authorisation for certain types of cash transportation : in relation to the cross-border transportation of euro notes by road on its territory, each Member State shall authorise : (a) at least one of the options set out amongst five modes of transport of notes and tow modes of transport for coins presented in the Regulation; (b) those options set out in the Regulation for the transport of notes and coins which are comparable to the transport modalities authorised for national cash transportation. Transport operations involving both coins and notes shall be covered by the modalities for the cross-border transportation of notes. As regards the transport of notes, a Member State may decide that only end-to-end IBNS may be used on its territory for the servicing of off-premises ATMs, provided that the same rules apply for domestic CIT transports. The Member States shall notify the Commission of the transport modalities applied in accordance with this Article. The Commission shall publish an information notice accordingly in the Official Journal of the European Union. The transport modalities applicable shall take effect one month after publication of the information notice. It should be noted that Members suggest deleting Article 20 of the proposal concerning national delegations . Adequate level of experience : Members consider that, in order to do cross-border work, companies must have an adequate minimum level of experience. Thus, it is appropriate that CIT-companies established in these Member States should demonstrate a minimum experience of 24 months of regularly transporting cash in the Member State where they are established without infringements of the national legislation before they may be granted a cross-border licence by this Member State. Mutual information : Member States shall inform the Commission of the content of the register of all the companies to which they have delivered a CIT cross-border licence. A company holding a CIT cross-border licence shall inform the granting authority, at least three months before it begins its cross-border activity , about the Member States(s) in which it will carry out CIT-transport. Security : with a view to improving CIT security both for the staff involved and for the public, use of the intelligent banknote neutralisation system (IBNS) should be encouraged and, after a thorough impact assessment by the Commission, should be capable of being developed in a manner entailing harmonisation of IBNS among the participating Member States. Report : the Commission shall report to the European Parliament and the Council on the implementation of this Regulation four years (as opposed to two years) after its entry into effect at the latest and, thereafter, once every five years. The report should also consider the potential added value of granting European CIT licences on a group basis. Delegated acts : the European Parliament and the Council may object to the delegated act within a period of 3 months from the date of notification. At the initiative of the European Parliament or the Council this period shall be extended by three months . The Commission shall consult the social partners before adopting delegated acts.
  • date: 2011-03-22T00:00:00 type: Committee report tabled for plenary, 1st reading/single reading body: EP docs: url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=REPORT&mode=XML&reference=A7-2011-76&language=EN title: A7-0076/2011
  • date: 2011-09-27T00:00:00 type: Results of vote in Parliament body: EP docs: url: https://oeil.secure.europarl.europa.eu/oeil/popups/sda.do?id=19835&l=en title: Results of vote in Parliament
  • date: 2011-09-27T00:00:00 type: Decision by Parliament, 1st reading/single reading body: EP docs: url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&language=EN&reference=P7-TA-2011-405 title: T7-0405/2011 summary: The European Parliament adopted by 634 votes to 23 with 8 abstentions, a legislative resolution on the proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the professional cross-border transportation of euro cash by road between euro-area Member States. Parliament adopted its position in first reading in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure. The amendments adopted in plenary are the result of a compromise negotiated between Parliament and Council. The Commission’s proposal was amended as follows: Subject matter: the text clarifies that the Regulation is designed to allow the professional cross-border transport of euro cash by road between participating Member States under conditions that guarantee the security of the transaction, the safety of the CIT security staff involved and of the public and the free movement of euro cash. In accordance with normal market practice, allows a limited value of non-euro cash to be transported in the same CIT vehicle. Exclusions: the transport of euro banknotes and coins shall be excluded from the scope of the Regulation where it is(i) a) carried out on the account of, and between, NCBs, or between banknote printing works and/or mints of participating Member States and the relevant NCBs; and b) escorted by the military or the police. Place of departure, maximum duration and number of euro cash deliveries/pick-ups: by derogation from the Regulation, point-to-point transport may be carried out within a time-slot of 24 hours, provided that night-time transport of euro cash is allowed under national rules of the Member State of origin, of the Member State of transit and of the host Member State. By way of derogation from Regulation (EC) No 1072/2009, there shall be no limit to the number of euro cash deliveries/pick-ups that a CIT vehicle may carry out in a host Member State during the same day. Cross-border CIT licence : CIT companies established in those participating Member States which do not have a specific approval procedure for CIT-companies in addition to their general rules for the security or transport sectors must demonstrate a minimum experience of 24 months of regularly transporting cash in the Member State of establishment without infringing national law before they are granted a cross-border CIT licence by that Member State. Such an approach would increase mutual confidence between Member States. It must also have a valid civil liability insurance to cover at least third-party damage to life and property, regardless of whether the cash transported is insured thereunder. The cross-border CIT licence shall be drawn up in accordance with the model and the physical characteristics defined in Annex I . Training: the minimum requirements of initial training for CIT security staff that carry out cross-border euro cash transport are set out in Annexe VI. CIT security staff shall follow further training activities in the areas set out in point 3 of Annex VI, at least every three years. At least one member of the CIT security staff in the CIT vehicle shall have at least A1-level language skills in the languages used by the local authorities and the population in the relevant areas of the Member State of transit and of the host Member State. The CIT vehicle shall, furthermore, be in constant radio contact, via the CIT company's control centre, with someone who has at least B1-level language skills in the languages used by the local authorities and the population in the relevant areas of the Member State of transit and of the host Member State, so as to ensure that effective communication with the national authorities is possible at all times. Carrying of weapons: CIT security staff shall comply with the law of the Member State of origin, of the Member State of transit and of the host Member State as regards the carrying of weapons and the maximum permitted calibre. CIT security staff who are armed or who travel in a CIT vehicle with arms on board shall (i) have a professional weapons licence or authorisation issued by the national authorities of the Member State of transit and/or the host Member State, where those Member States allow CIT security staff to be armed, and (ii) fulfil all the national requirements for that professional weapons licence or authorisation. For that purpose, Member States may recognise the professional weapons licence or authorisation of the other Member State . Member States shall establish a single central national contact point to which CIT companies established in other Member States may submit applications for a professional weapons licence or authorisation for their CIT security staff. Removal of neutralised banknotes from circulation: CIT companies operating under this Regulation shall remove from circulation all banknotes that may have been neutralised that they encounter while carrying out their activities. They shall hand over those banknotes to the appropriate NCB branch of their Member State of origin and provide a written statement on the cause and nature of the neutralisation. Mutual information: Member States shall keep a register of all the companies to which they have delivered a cross-border CIT licence and shall inform the Commission about its content. To facilitate information-sharing, the Commission shall set up a central secured database containing data on licences issued, suspended or withdrawn, which shall be accessible to the relevant authorities of the participating Member States. A company holding or having submitted an application for a cross-border CIT licence shall inform the granting authority at least two months before it begins its cross-border activity of the Member States in which it will carry out CIT transport. The Member State of origin shall subsequently immediately notify the Member States concerned that the cross-border activity is to start. Applicable transport arrangements: with respect to the cross-border transport of euro banknotes by road carried out on its territory, each Member State shall allow: at least one of the five options laid down in the text; and those options laid down in the Regulation that are comparable to the transport arrangements allowed for domestic CIT transport. Transport which includes both euro banknotes and coins shall be covered by the transport arrangements for the cross-border transport of euro banknotes. Regarding the transport of banknotes, a Member State may decide that only end-to-end IBNS may be used on its territory for the servicing of off-premises ATMs or other types of off-premises cash dispensers, provided that the same rules apply for domestic CIT transport. Participating Member States shall notify the Commission of the transport arrangements which are applicable. The Commission shall publish a corresponding information notice in the Official Journal of the European Union. The applicable transport arrangements shall take effect one month after publication of the information notice. If a host Member State or a Member State of transit finds that an IBNS displays serious deficiencies as regards the technical characteristics normally required, namely that the cash can be accessed without triggering the neutralisation mechanism or the IBNS has been modified after homologation in such a way that it no longer fulfils the homologation criteria, it shall inform the Commission and the Member State that granted the homologation and may ask that new tests be carried out on that IBNS. Pending the results of those new tests, Member States may provisionally prohibit the use of those IBNS on their territory. They shall, without delay, inform the Commission and the other participating Member States thereof. In the case of a cabin-armoured CIT vehicle equipped with IBNS, or a fully-armoured CIT vehicle not equipped with IBNS, the cabin of the vehicle is equipped with a bullet-proof vest for each member of the CIT security staff on board. The CIT security staff may wear the bullet-proof vests referred to in point (c) during the transport and shall wear them where required by the law of the Member State where they are situated. Compliance: during the period of validity of a cross-border CIT licence, Member States of origin shall ensure that the rules laid down in the Regulation are complied with, including via random inspections without prior notification to the company. Such inspections may also be carried out by host Member States. Security: with a view to improving CIT security both for the staff involved and for the public, use of the intelligent banknote neutralisation system (IBNS) should be encouraged and, after a thorough impact assessment by the Commission, should be capable of being developed in a manner entailing harmonisation of IBNS among the participating Member States. Review: four years after the entry into force of the Regulation, the Commission shall on the implementation of the Regulation, having consulted the stakeholders in the sector including the social partners followed by the Member States. The report shall, in particular, (i) examine the possibility of establishing common training requirements for the carrying of arms by CIT security staff and of amending Article 24 in the light of Directive 96/71/EC, take due account of technological progress in the area of IBNS, and (ii) consider the potential added value of granting Union CIT licences on a group basis and assess whether this Regulation needs to be revised accordingly. Delegated acts: the Commission is empowered to adopt acts in accordance with Article 290 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) in respect of the amendment of the technical rules on standards in regard to the IBNS, the armouring of CIT vehicles, bullet-proof vests and weapons strong-boxes.
  • date: 2011-10-27T00:00:00 type: Act adopted by Council after Parliament's 1st reading body: EP/CSL
  • date: 2011-11-16T00:00:00 type: Final act signed body: CSL
  • date: 2011-11-16T00:00:00 type: End of procedure in Parliament body: EP
  • date: 2011-11-29T00:00:00 type: Final act published in Official Journal summary: PURPOSE: to facilitate the professional cross-border transport of euro cash by road between euro-area Member States LEGISLATIVE ACT: Regulation (EU) No 1214/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the professional cross-border transport of euro cash by road between euro-area Member States. CONTENT: following agreement in first reading with the European Parliament, the Council adopted a regulation aimed at facilitating the professional cross-border transport of euro cash by road between the Member States of the euro zone. The new Regulation provides for conditions designed to guarantee the security of the transaction, the safety of the cash-in-transit (CIT) security staff involved and of the public and the free movement of euro cash. This includes the obligation for companies wishing to make cross-border transport of euro cash by road to apply for a cross-border cash-in-transit (CIT) licence from their Member States of origin. Place of departure, maximum duration and number of euro cash deliveries/pick-ups: cross-border transport of euro cash provided in accordance with this Regulation shall be carried out during the daytime. A CIT vehicle carrying out cross-border transport of euro cash shall start its journey from its Member State of origin and shall return to it on the same day. By derogation, point-to-point transport may be carried out within a time-slot of 24 hours, provided that night-time transport of euro cash is allowed under national rules of the Member State of origin, of the Member State of transit and of the host Member State. Cross-border CIT licence : a company wishing to undertake cross-border transport of euro cash by road shall apply for a cross-border CIT licence from the granting authority in its Member State of origin. The cross-border CIT licence shall be granted for a period of 5 years by the national granting authority, provided that the applicant company meets certain conditions. Amongst other things, the applicant company must have a valid civil liability insurance to cover at least third- party damage to life and property, regardless of whether the cash transported is insured thereunder. Applicant companies established in a Member State which has no specific approval procedure for CIT companies in addition to its general rules for the security or transport sector, must be able to provide evidence that it has had regular business transporting cash for at least 24 months within its Member State of origin prior to the application with no infringements of that Member State’s national law governing such activities. CIT security staff : staff must: (i) not have a relevant entry in a criminal record and are of good repute and integrity according to, for instance, relevant police records; (ii) have a medical certificate certifying that their physical and mental health is adequate for the task to be performed; (iii) have successfully followed at least 200 hours of ad hoc initial training , not including any training on the use of firearms. The minimum requirements for the ad hoc initial training are set out in Annex VI. At least one member of the CIT security staff in the CIT vehicle shall have at least A1-level language skills in the languages used by the local authorities and the population in the relevant areas of the Member State of transit and of the host Member State. Carrying of weapons : CIT security staff shall comply with the law of the Member State of origin, of the Member State of transit and of the host Member State as regards the carrying of weapons and the maximum permitted calibre. CIT security staff who are armed or who travel in a CIT vehicle with arms on board shall have a professional weapons licence or authorisation issued by the national authorities of the Member State of transit and/or the host Member State, where those Member States allow CIT security staff to be armed. In the case of a cabin-armoured CIT vehicle equipped with IBNS, or a fully-armoured CIT vehicle not equipped with IBNS, the cabin of the vehicle is equipped with a bullet-proof vest for each member of the CIT security staff on board. The CIT security staff may wear the bullet-proof vests during the transport and shall wear them where required by the law of the Member State where they are situated. Security: with a view to improving CIT security for both the CIT security staff involved and the public, use of the intelligent banknote neutralisation system (IBNS) should be encouraged and, after a thorough analysis of the potential impacts by the Commission, should be capable of being developed in a manner entailing harmonisation of IBNS among the participating Member States, without prejudice to the rules set out in this Regulation on applicable transport arrangements. A Member State may decide to introduce temporary security measures going beyond those provided for in this Regulation in the event of an urgent problem affecting significantly the security of CIT operations. Mutual information : Member States shall submit to the Commission the rules as well as information on which IBNS have been homologated by them and must keep a register of all the companies to which they have delivered a cross-border CIT licence and shall inform the Commission about its content. To facilitate information-sharing, the Commission shall set up a central secured database containing data on licences issued, suspended or withdrawn, which shall be accessible to the relevant authorities of the participating Member States. Compliance: during the period of validity of a cross-border CIT licence, Member States of origin shall ensure that the rules laid down in this Regulation are complied with, including via random inspections without prior notification to the company. Such inspections may also be carried out by host Member States. Remuneration of CIT security staff carrying out cross-border transport : CIT security staff carrying out cross-border transport in accordance with this Regulation shall be guaranteed the relevant minimum rates of pay, including overtime rates, in the host Member State in accordance with Directive 96/71/EC. Review: by 1 December 2016 and every 5 years thereafter, the Commission shall report to the European Parliament and to the Council on the implementation of this Regulation. For that purpose, it shall consult the stakeholders in the sector including the social partners followed by the Member States. ENTRY INTO FORCE: 29/11/2012. DELEGATED ACTS: the Commission shall be empowered to adopt delegated acts concerning amendments to Annex II and to the technical rules on the standards applicable to the armouring of CIT vehicles and to bulletproof vests and to weapons strong-boxes, with a view to taking into account technological progress and possible new European standards. The power to adopt delegated acts is conferred on the Commission for an indeterminate period of time from 30 November 2012. The delegation of power may be revoked at any time by the European Parliament or by the Council. A delegated act shall enter into force only if no objection has been expressed either by the European Parliament or by the Council within a period of 3 months of notification of that act (which may be extended by 3 months at the initiative of the European Parliament or of the Council. docs: title: Regulation 2011/1214 url: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexplus!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=EN&numdoc=32011R1214 title: OJ L 316 29.11.2011, p. 0001 url: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=OJ:L:2011:316:TOC
other
  • body: EC dg: url: http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/economy_finance/index_en.htm title: Economic and Financial Affairs commissioner: REHN Olli
procedure/Modified legal basis
Old
Rules of Procedure of the European Parliament EP 150
New
Rules of Procedure EP 150
procedure/dossier_of_the_committee
Old
ECON/7/03539
New
  • ECON/7/03539
procedure/final/url
Old
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexplus!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=EN&numdoc=32011R1214
New
https://eur-lex.europa.eu/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexplus!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=EN&numdoc=32011R1214
procedure/instrument
Old
Regulation
New
  • Regulation
  • See also 2010/0206(APP)
procedure/subject
Old
  • 2.40 Free movement of services, freedom to provide
  • 2.50.04 Banks and credit
  • 3.20.05 Road transport: passengers and freight
  • 5.20.02 Single currency, euro, euro area
New
2.50.04
Banks and credit
3.20.15.04
Road transport agreements and cooperation
5.20.02
Single currency, euro, euro area
procedure/summary
  • See also
activities/0/docs/0/celexid
CELEX:52010PC0377:EN
activities/0/docs/0/celexid
CELEX:52010PC0377:EN
activities/0/docs/0/url
Old
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/registre/docs_autres_institutions/commission_europeenne/com/2010/0377/COM_COM(2010)0377_EN.pdf
New
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/docs_autres_institutions/commission_europeenne/com/2010/0377/COM_COM(2010)0377_EN.pdf
links/European Commission/title
Old
PreLex
New
EUR-Lex
activities
  • date: 2010-07-14T00:00:00 docs: url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/registre/docs_autres_institutions/commission_europeenne/com/2010/0377/COM_COM(2010)0377_EN.pdf title: COM(2010)0377 type: Legislative proposal published celexid: CELEX:52010PC0377:EN body: EC type: Legislative proposal published commission: DG: url: http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/economy_finance/index_en.htm title: Economic and Financial Affairs Commissioner: REHN Olli
  • date: 2010-09-07T00:00:00 body: EP type: Committee referral announced in Parliament, 1st reading/single reading committees: body: EP shadows: group: ALDE name: GOULARD Sylvie responsible: True committee: ECON date: 2010-09-06T00:00:00 committee_full: Economic and Monetary Affairs rapporteur: group: PPE name: AUCONIE Sophie body: EP responsible: False committee_full: Employment and Social Affairs committee: EMPL body: EP responsible: False committee_full: Transport and Tourism committee: TRAN
  • date: 2011-03-16T00:00:00 body: EP committees: body: EP shadows: group: ALDE name: GOULARD Sylvie responsible: True committee: ECON date: 2010-09-06T00:00:00 committee_full: Economic and Monetary Affairs rapporteur: group: PPE name: AUCONIE Sophie body: EP responsible: False committee_full: Employment and Social Affairs committee: EMPL body: EP responsible: False committee_full: Transport and Tourism committee: TRAN type: Vote in committee, 1st reading/single reading
  • date: 2011-03-22T00:00:00 docs: url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=REPORT&mode=XML&reference=A7-2011-76&language=EN type: Committee report tabled for plenary, 1st reading/single reading title: A7-0076/2011 body: EP committees: body: EP shadows: group: ALDE name: GOULARD Sylvie responsible: True committee: ECON date: 2010-09-06T00:00:00 committee_full: Economic and Monetary Affairs rapporteur: group: PPE name: AUCONIE Sophie body: EP responsible: False committee_full: Employment and Social Affairs committee: EMPL body: EP responsible: False committee_full: Transport and Tourism committee: TRAN type: Committee report tabled for plenary, 1st reading/single reading
  • date: 2011-09-27T00:00:00 docs: url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/oeil/popups/sda.do?id=19835&l=en type: Results of vote in Parliament title: Results of vote in Parliament url: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&language=EN&reference=P7-TA-2011-405 type: Decision by Parliament, 1st reading/single reading title: T7-0405/2011 body: EP type: Results of vote in Parliament
  • date: 2011-10-27T00:00:00 body: CSL type: Council Meeting council: Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) meeting_id: 3121
  • date: 2011-10-27T00:00:00 body: EP/CSL type: Act adopted by Council after Parliament's 1st reading
  • date: 2011-11-16T00:00:00 body: CSL type: Final act signed
  • date: 2011-11-16T00:00:00 body: EP type: End of procedure in Parliament
  • date: 2011-11-29T00:00:00 type: Final act published in Official Journal docs: url: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexplus!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=EN&numdoc=32011R1214 title: Regulation 2011/1214 url: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=OJ:L:2011:316:TOC title: OJ L 316 29.11.2011, p. 0001
committees
  • body: EP shadows: group: ALDE name: GOULARD Sylvie responsible: True committee: ECON date: 2010-09-06T00:00:00 committee_full: Economic and Monetary Affairs rapporteur: group: PPE name: AUCONIE Sophie
  • body: EP responsible: False committee_full: Employment and Social Affairs committee: EMPL
  • body: EP responsible: False committee_full: Transport and Tourism committee: TRAN
links
National parliaments
European Commission
other
  • body: EC dg: url: http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/economy_finance/index_en.htm title: Economic and Financial Affairs commissioner: REHN Olli
procedure
dossier_of_the_committee
ECON/7/03539
reference
2010/0204(COD)
subtype
Legislation
legal_basis
Treaty on the Functioning of the EU TFEU 133
stage_reached
Procedure completed
summary
See also
instrument
Regulation
Modified legal basis
Rules of Procedure of the European Parliament EP 150
title
Professional cross-border transportation of euro cash by road between euro-area Member States
type
COD - Ordinary legislative procedure (ex-codecision procedure)
final
subject