BETA


Events

2017/05/16
   Commission response to text adopted in plenary
Documents
2017/02/16
   EP - Results of vote in Parliament
2017/02/16
   EP - Decision by Parliament, 1st reading/single reading
Details

The European Parliament adopted by 451 votes to 138 with 20 abstentions, a resolution containing recommendations to the Commission on Civil Law Rules on Robotics.

Humankind stands on the threshold of an era when ever more sophisticated robots, bots, androids and other manifestations of artificial intelligence ("AI") seem to be poised to unleash a new industrial revolution , which is likely to leave no stratum of society untouched. The development of robotics and artificial intelligence raises legal and ethical issues that require a prompt intervention at EU level.

Members called on the Commission to submit, on the basis of Article 114 TFEU, a proposal for a directive on civil law rules on robotics, bearing in mind the following recommendations:

Definition and classification of a smart robot : Parliament called on the Commission to propose common Union definitions of cyber physical systems, autonomous systems, smart autonomous robots and their subcategories.

Registration of smart robots : Parliament considered that a comprehensive Union system of registration of advanced robots should be introduced within the Union’s internal market. The Commission is called upon to establish criteria for the classification of robots that would need to be registered.

Members also considered it essential, in the development of robotics and AI, to guarantee that humans have control over intelligent machines at all times and that special attention should be paid to the possible development of an emotional connection between humans and robots ‒ particularly in vulnerable groups (children, the elderly and people with disabilities).

In order to avoid fragmentation in the internal market, Parliament noted that testing, certification and market approval should only be required in a single Member State and that this approach should be accompanied by effective market surveillance. It also underlined the importance of the principle of mutual recognition in the cross-border use of robots and robotic systems.

Research and innovation : Members asked the Commission and Member States to strengthen financial instruments for research projects in robotics and ICT, including public-private partnerships. Whilst welcoming the fact that the Member States and the Union are funding more and more research projects, Parliament called for increased EU support for the Horizon 2020 funded SPARC programme.

Ethical principles : Parliament stressed the need for a clear, strict and efficient guiding ethical framework for the development, design, production, use and modification of robots is needed to complement the existing national and Union acquis. It proposed, in the annex to the resolution, a framework in the form of a charter consisting of a code of conduct for robotics engineers, of a code for research ethics committees when reviewing robotics protocols and of model licences for designers and users.

The code should be based on the principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice. Researchers and designers were asked to act responsibly and bear in mind the need to respect, dignity, privacy, and human safety.

A European Agency for robotics and artificial intelligence : in order to guarantee coherent cross-border rules in the Union, Parliament asked the Commission to consider the designation of such an Agency in order to provide the technical, ethical and regulatory expertise needed to support the relevant public actors, at both Union and Member State level. The Agency must be granted an appropriate budget.

Intellectual property rights : Members called on the Commission to support a horizontal and technologically neutral approach to intellectual property applicable to the various sectors in which robotics could be employed. Parliament emphasised that a high level of security and protection of personal data together with due regard for privacy in communication between humans, robots and AI are fundamental. The Commission and the Member States are urged to ensure that civil law regulations in the robotics sector are consistent with Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council (General Data Protection Regulation).

Liability : the Commission is asked to submit a proposal for a legislative instrument on legal questions related to the development and use of robotics and artificial intelligence foreseeable in the next 10 to 15 years, combined with non-legislative instruments such as guidelines and codes of conduct.

The Commission was asked to explore the implications of all possible legal solutions, such as:

establishing a compulsory insurance scheme where relevant and necessary for specific categories of robots whereby, similarly to what already happens with cars, producers, or owners of robots would be required to take out insurance cover for the damage potentially caused by their robots; ensuring that a compensation fund would not only serve the purpose of guaranteeing compensation if the damage caused by a robot was not covered by insurance; creating a specific legal status for robots in the long run, so that at least the most sophisticated autonomous robots could be established as having the status of electronic persons responsible for making good any damage they may cause.

Members made a further series of recommendations on autonomous vehicles (the automotive sector is in most urgent need of efficient Union and global rules), drones, medical robots and human repair.

Employment : stressing the need to prepare for the changes that robotics will mean for society, Parliament asked the Commission to start monitoring medium- and long-term job trends more closely, with a special focus on the creation, displacement and loss of jobs in the different fields/areas of qualification, as well as the consequences on the viability of the social security systems of the Member States. It also called upon the Commission to provide significant support for the development of digital abilities as a first step towards better aligning labour market shortages and demand.

Documents
2017/02/16
   EP - End of procedure in Parliament
2017/02/15
   EP - Debate in Parliament
2017/01/27
   EP - Committee report tabled for plenary, single reading
Details

The Committee on Legal Affairs adopted the report by Mady DELVAUX (S&D, LU) with recommendations to the Commission on Civil Law Rules on Robotics (Initiative – Rule 46 of the Rules of Procedure).

The Committee on Transport and Tourism as well as the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs, exercising their prerogatives as associated committees in accordance with Article 54 of the Rules of Procedure, also gave their opinions on the report.

More and more appliances are now able to operate interactively and autonomously to some extent. Examples include self-driving cars and autonomous weapons. Artificial intelligence and robotics are advancing at an accelerating pace and legislation needs to be updated in line with a changing world.

Now that humankind stands on the threshold of an era when ever more sophisticated robots, bots, androids and other manifestations of artificial intelligence ("AI") seem to be poised to unleash a new industrial revolution , which is likely to leave no stratum of society untouched. The development of robotics and artificial intelligence raises legal and ethical issues which require a prompt intervention at EU level.

Members called on the Commission to submit, on the basis of Article 114 TFEU, a proposal for a directive on civil law rules on robotics, following the detailed recommendations:

Common Union definitions : Members called on the Commission to propose common Union definitions of cyber physical systems, autonomous systems, smart autonomous robots and their subcategories.

Registration of smart robots : Members considered that a comprehensive Union system of registration of advanced robots should be introduced within the Union’s internal market. The Commission is called upon to establish criteria for the classification of robots that would need to be registered. They also considered it essential, in the development of robotics and AI, to guarantee that humans have control over intelligent machines at all times and that special attention should be paid to the possible development of an emotional connection between humans and robots ‒ particularly in vulnerable groups (children, the elderly and people with disabilities).

In order to avoid fragmentation in the internal market, the report noted that testing, certification and market approval should only be required in a single Member State and that this approach should be accompanied by effective market surveillance.

Research and innovation : welcoming the fact that more and more research projects are being funded by the Member States and the Union, Members called on the Commission and the Member States to strengthen financial instruments for research projects in robotics and ICT. The EU already supports robotics projects through the SPARC programme which funds innovation in robotics by European companies and research institutions. However, increased support for this particular programme is called for.

Ethical principles : Members stressed that the existing Union legal framework should be updated and complemented , where appropriate, by guiding ethical principles in line with the complexity of robotics and its many social, medical and bioethical implications. A clear, strict and efficient guiding ethical framework for the development, design, production, use and modification of robots is needed to complement the existing national and Union acquis. They proposed, in the annex to the resolution, a framework in the form of a charter consisting of a code of conduct for robotics engineers, of a code for research ethics committees when reviewing robotics protocols and of model licences for designers and users.

The report suggested that advanced robots should be equipped with a ‘ black box ’ which records data on every transaction carried out by the machine, including the logic that contributed to its decisions.

A European Agency for robotics and artificial intelligence : Members stressed that enhanced cooperation between the Member States and the Commission is necessary in order to guarantee coherent cross-border rules in the Union. This Agency should provide the technical, ethical and regulatory expertise needed to support the relevant public actors, at both Union and Member State level. The Agency should be provided with a proper budget and staffing.

Intellectual property rights : Members emphasised that the protection of networks of interconnected robots and artificial intelligence has to be ensured to prevent potential security breaches. A high level of security and protection of personal data together with due regard for privacy in communication between humans, robots and AI are fundamental. The Commission and the Member States are urged to ensure that civil law regulations in the robotics sector are consistent with Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and the free movement of such data (General Data Protection Regulation).

Liability : civil liability for damage caused by robots is a crucial issue which also needs to be analysed and addressed at Union level. In this regard, the Commission is asked to submit a proposal for a legislative instrument on legal questions related to the development and use of robotics and artificial intelligence foreseeable in the next 10 to 15 years, combined with non-legislative instruments such as guidelines and codes of conduct.

Members made a further series of recommendations on autonomous vehicles (the automotive sector is in most urgent need of efficient Union and global rules), drones, medical robots and human repair. They also called on the Commission to provide significant support for the development of digital abilities as a first step towards better aligning labour market shortages and demand.

Documents
2017/01/12
   EP - Vote in committee, 1st reading/single reading
2016/11/23
   EP - Committee opinion
Documents
2016/11/23
   EP - Committee opinion
Documents
2016/11/16
   EP - Committee opinion
Documents
2016/11/15
   EP - Committee opinion
Documents
2016/10/26
   EP - Amendments tabled in committee
Documents
2016/10/26
   EP - Amendments tabled in committee
Documents
2016/10/14
   EP - Committee opinion
Documents
2016/10/12
   EP - Committee opinion
Documents
2016/09/15
   EP - Referral to associated committees announced in Parliament
2016/06/15
   EP - Committee Opinion
2016/05/31
   EP - Committee draft report
Documents
2016/05/24
   EP - Committee Opinion
2016/04/19
   EP - Committee Opinion
2015/06/23
   EP - Committee Opinion
2015/06/10
   EP - Committee Opinion
2015/05/21
   EP - Committee referral announced in Parliament, 1st reading/single reading
2015/05/19
   EP - Committee Opinion
2015/01/20
   EP - Responsible Committee

Documents

Activities

Votes

A8-0005/2017 - Mady Delvaux - Am 9

2017/02/16 Outcome: -: 495, +: 102, 0: 29
SK HR DK CY LV IE LU EE MT LT SI FI BE PL GB HU EL BG NL CZ SE AT PT IT FR RO ES DE
Total
9
10
10
6
7
9
6
6
6
10
7
12
19
50
42
15
15
16
20
16
18
17
21
57
65
30
45
82
icon: ECR ECR
59

Slovakia ECR

Abstain (1)

3

Croatia ECR

For (1)

1

Cyprus ECR

1

Latvia ECR

For (1)

1

Lithuania ECR

1
2

Greece ECR

Against (1)

1

Bulgaria ECR

1

Netherlands ECR

2

Czechia ECR

2

Italy ECR

1

Romania ECR

For (1)

1
icon: ENF ENF
36

Belgium ENF

For (1)

1

Poland ENF

2

United Kingdom ENF

Against (1)

1

Netherlands ENF

4

Romania ENF

1

Germany ENF

For (1)

1
icon: NI NI
10

Poland NI

Abstain (1)

1

United Kingdom NI

2

Hungary NI

2

Italy NI

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1

France NI

1
icon: EFDD EFDD
19

Lithuania EFDD

Abstain (1)

1

Poland EFDD

1

United Kingdom EFDD

Abstain (1)

1

Sweden EFDD

2

France EFDD

1
icon: GUE/NGL GUE/NGL
44

Denmark GUE/NGL

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1

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2

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3

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1

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1

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1

Czechia GUE/NGL

2

Sweden GUE/NGL

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1

Portugal GUE/NGL

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4

Italy GUE/NGL

3
icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE
45

Denmark Verts/ALE

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1

Latvia Verts/ALE

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1

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1

Estonia Verts/ALE

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1

Lithuania Verts/ALE

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1

Slovenia Verts/ALE

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1

Finland Verts/ALE

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1

Belgium Verts/ALE

2

United Kingdom Verts/ALE

4

Hungary Verts/ALE

2

Netherlands Verts/ALE

2

Sweden Verts/ALE

3

Austria Verts/ALE

2

Italy Verts/ALE

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1

France Verts/ALE

6

Spain Verts/ALE

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4
icon: ALDE ALDE
62

Croatia ALDE

2

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1

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1

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1

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3

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1

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1

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1

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1

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2
icon: PPE PPE
178

Slovakia PPE

4

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1

Cyprus PPE

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1

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3

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1

Lithuania PPE

2

Finland PPE

2
3

Greece PPE

2
3
icon: S&D S&D
173

Slovakia S&D

2

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2
3

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2

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1

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1

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3

Netherlands S&D

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1

Czechia S&D

3

A8-0005/2017 - Mady Delvaux - § 2/2

2017/02/16 Outcome: +: 412, -: 202, 0: 14
DE IT ES RO AT PT HU FR PL MT BG LU SI GB HR LV SK CY LT IE EE SE EL DK BE FI CZ NL
Total
80
56
49
30
17
21
15
66
50
6
16
5
7
43
10
7
9
6
10
9
6
18
14
11
19
11
18
19
icon: S&D S&D
172

Malta S&D

3

Luxembourg S&D

For (1)

1

Slovenia S&D

For (1)

1

Croatia S&D

2

Latvia S&D

1

Slovakia S&D

2

Cyprus S&D

2

Ireland S&D

For (1)

1

Estonia S&D

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1

Belgium S&D

3

Czechia S&D

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3

Netherlands S&D

For (1)

1
icon: PPE PPE
182

Luxembourg PPE

2

Cyprus PPE

1

Estonia PPE

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1

Greece PPE

2

Denmark PPE

Abstain (1)

1

Finland PPE

Against (1)

2
3
icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE
45

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For (1)

1

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2

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2

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1

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1

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4

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1

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For (1)

1

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1

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3

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1

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2

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1

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2
icon: EFDD EFDD
18

France EFDD

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1

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1

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1

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1

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2
icon: NI NI
11

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1

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2

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1

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3

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2
icon: ENF ENF
35

Germany ENF

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1

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1

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2

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1

Belgium ENF

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1

Netherlands ENF

3
icon: GUE/NGL GUE/NGL
44

Italy GUE/NGL

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3

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4

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1

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3

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1

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1

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1

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2

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1
icon: ALDE ALDE
62

Romania ALDE

2

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1

Portugal ALDE

1

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1

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1

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1

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2

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1

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1

Estonia ALDE

3

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2

Finland ALDE

3
icon: ECR ECR
59

Italy ECR

Against (1)

1

Romania ECR

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1

Bulgaria ECR

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1

Croatia ECR

Against (1)

1

Latvia ECR

Against (1)

1

Cyprus ECR

1

Lithuania ECR

Against (1)

1

Greece ECR

Against (1)

1

Finland ECR

2

Czechia ECR

2

Netherlands ECR

2

A8-0005/2017 - Mady Delvaux - § 3/2

2017/02/16 Outcome: +: 550, -: 78, 0: 5
DE IT FR PL GB ES RO PT AT HU EL IE SK BG CZ NL LU DK CY HR MT BE LT LV SI FI SE EE
Total
81
56
66
50
43
49
30
21
17
15
14
9
9
16
18
21
6
11
6
10
6
19
10
7
7
12
18
6
icon: S&D S&D
172

Ireland S&D

For (1)

1

Slovakia S&D

2

Czechia S&D

Against (1)

3

Netherlands S&D

For (1)

1

Luxembourg S&D

For (1)

1

Cyprus S&D

2

Croatia S&D

2

Malta S&D

3

Belgium S&D

3

Latvia S&D

1

Slovenia S&D

For (1)

1

Estonia S&D

For (1)

1
icon: PPE PPE
184

Greece PPE

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2

Luxembourg PPE

3

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1

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1

Belgium PPE

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3

Finland PPE

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2

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1
icon: ECR ECR
59

Italy ECR

1

Romania ECR

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1

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For (1)

1

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1

Czechia ECR

2

Netherlands ECR

2

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1

Croatia ECR

For (1)

1

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1

Latvia ECR

For (1)

1
2
icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE
45

Italy Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

United Kingdom Verts/ALE

4

Austria Verts/ALE

2

Hungary Verts/ALE

2

Netherlands Verts/ALE

2

Luxembourg Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Denmark Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Belgium Verts/ALE

2

Lithuania Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Latvia Verts/ALE

1

Slovenia Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Finland Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Sweden Verts/ALE

3

Estonia Verts/ALE

For (1)

1
icon: GUE/NGL GUE/NGL
44

United Kingdom GUE/NGL

1

Ireland GUE/NGL

3

Czechia GUE/NGL

2

Netherlands GUE/NGL

For (1)

1

Denmark GUE/NGL

Abstain (1)

1

Cyprus GUE/NGL

2

Finland GUE/NGL

For (1)

1

Sweden GUE/NGL

Abstain (1)

1
icon: ENF ENF
36

Germany ENF

For (1)

1
2

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For (1)

1

Romania ENF

1

Belgium ENF

For (1)

1
icon: EFDD EFDD
19

France EFDD

Against (1)

1

Poland EFDD

1

United Kingdom EFDD

Against (1)

1

Lithuania EFDD

For (1)

1

Sweden EFDD

2
icon: NI NI
11

Italy NI

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1

France NI

2

Poland NI

1

United Kingdom NI

For (1)

Against (1)

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3

Hungary NI

2
icon: ALDE ALDE
63

United Kingdom ALDE

Against (1)

1

Romania ALDE

2

Portugal ALDE

1

Austria ALDE

Against (1)

1

Ireland ALDE

For (1)

1

Luxembourg ALDE

For (1)

1

Denmark ALDE

2

Croatia ALDE

2

Lithuania ALDE

Abstain (1)

3

Latvia ALDE

1

Slovenia ALDE

Against (1)

1

Estonia ALDE

3

A8-0005/2017 - Mady Delvaux - § 32/2

2017/02/16 Outcome: +: 501, -: 120, 0: 10
DE IT FR ES RO PT AT EL HU PL IE BE GB NL LU SE MT BG SK SI CY CZ LV HR LT FI DK EE
Total
81
55
66
49
30
20
17
14
15
50
9
19
43
21
6
18
6
16
9
7
6
18
7
10
10
12
11
6
icon: PPE PPE
183

Greece PPE

2

Luxembourg PPE

3

Sweden PPE

Against (1)

3

Cyprus PPE

1

Finland PPE

Against (1)

2

Denmark PPE

For (1)

1

Estonia PPE

For (1)

1
icon: S&D S&D
172

Ireland S&D

For (1)

1

Belgium S&D

3

Netherlands S&D

For (1)

1

Luxembourg S&D

For (1)

1

Malta S&D

3

Slovakia S&D

2

Slovenia S&D

For (1)

1

Cyprus S&D

2

Czechia S&D

Against (1)

3

Latvia S&D

1

Croatia S&D

2

Estonia S&D

For (1)

1
icon: GUE/NGL GUE/NGL
44

Ireland GUE/NGL

3

United Kingdom GUE/NGL

1

Netherlands GUE/NGL

For (1)

1

Sweden GUE/NGL

For (1)

1

Cyprus GUE/NGL

2

Czechia GUE/NGL

2

Finland GUE/NGL

For (1)

1

Denmark GUE/NGL

For (1)

1
icon: ENF ENF
36

Germany ENF

For (1)

1

Romania ENF

1
2

Belgium ENF

For (1)

1

United Kingdom ENF

For (1)

1
icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE
44

Italy Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

France Verts/ALE

6
4

Austria Verts/ALE

2

Hungary Verts/ALE

2

Belgium Verts/ALE

2

United Kingdom Verts/ALE

Against (1)

4

Netherlands Verts/ALE

2

Luxembourg Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

Sweden Verts/ALE

3

Slovenia Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

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1

Lithuania Verts/ALE

For (1)

1

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For (1)

1

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1

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For (1)

1
icon: EFDD EFDD
19

France EFDD

1

Poland EFDD

1

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1

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2

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1
icon: NI NI
11

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1

France NI

For (1)

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2

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2

Poland NI

1

United Kingdom NI

For (1)

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3
icon: ECR ECR
59

Italy ECR

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1

Romania ECR

For (1)

1

Greece ECR

For (1)

1

Netherlands ECR

2

Bulgaria ECR

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1

Slovakia ECR

3

Cyprus ECR

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1

Czechia ECR

2

Latvia ECR

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1

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1

Lithuania ECR

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1

Finland ECR

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2
icon: ALDE ALDE
63

Romania ALDE

2

Portugal ALDE

1

Austria ALDE

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1

Ireland ALDE

For (1)

1

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Against (1)

1

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For (1)

1

Slovenia ALDE

Against (1)

1

Latvia ALDE

1

Croatia ALDE

2

Lithuania ALDE

Abstain (1)

3

Denmark ALDE

2

Estonia ALDE

3

A8-0005/2017 - Mady Delvaux - Am 5=10

2017/02/16 Outcome: -: 485, +: 125, 0: 24
SK HR CY DK LV SI LT LU EE MT CZ FI BE IE PL EL HU NL PT GB BG FR SE AT IT RO ES DE
Total
9
10
6
11
7
7
10
6
6
6
18
12
19
9
50
14
15
21
21
43
16
66
18
17
56
30
49
82
icon: ECR ECR
59

Croatia ECR

For (1)

1

Cyprus ECR

1

Latvia ECR

For (1)

1

Lithuania ECR

1

Czechia ECR

2
2

Greece ECR

Against (1)

1

Netherlands ECR

2

Bulgaria ECR

1

Italy ECR

1

Romania ECR

Against (1)

1
icon: ENF ENF
36

Belgium ENF

For (1)

1

Poland ENF

2

United Kingdom ENF

For (1)

1

Romania ENF

1

Germany ENF

For (1)

1
icon: NI NI
11

Poland NI

Abstain (1)

1

Hungary NI

2

United Kingdom NI

For (1)

Against (2)

3

France NI

2

Italy NI

Against (1)

1
icon: EFDD EFDD
19

Lithuania EFDD

For (1)

1

Poland EFDD

1

United Kingdom EFDD

Abstain (1)

1

France EFDD

1

Sweden EFDD

2
icon: GUE/NGL GUE/NGL
44

Cyprus GUE/NGL

2

Denmark GUE/NGL

Against (1)

1

Czechia GUE/NGL

2

Finland GUE/NGL

Against (1)

1

Ireland GUE/NGL

3

Netherlands GUE/NGL

Against (1)

1

Portugal GUE/NGL

Against (1)

4

United Kingdom GUE/NGL

Against (1)

1

Sweden GUE/NGL

Against (1)

1

Italy GUE/NGL

3
icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE
45

Denmark Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Latvia Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Slovenia Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Lithuania Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Luxembourg Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Estonia Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Finland Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Belgium Verts/ALE

2

Hungary Verts/ALE

2

Netherlands Verts/ALE

2

United Kingdom Verts/ALE

4

France Verts/ALE

Against (2)

6

Sweden Verts/ALE

3

Austria Verts/ALE

2

Italy Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Spain Verts/ALE

Abstain (1)

4
icon: ALDE ALDE
63

Croatia ALDE

2

Denmark ALDE

2

Latvia ALDE

1

Slovenia ALDE

Against (1)

1

Luxembourg ALDE

Against (1)

1

Estonia ALDE

3

Ireland ALDE

Against (1)

1

Portugal ALDE

1

United Kingdom ALDE

Against (1)

1

Austria ALDE

Against (1)

1

Romania ALDE

2
icon: PPE PPE
184

Slovakia PPE

4

Cyprus PPE

Against (1)

1

Denmark PPE

Against (1)

1

Slovenia PPE

For (1)

4

Lithuania PPE

2

Luxembourg PPE

3

Estonia PPE

Against (1)

1

Finland PPE

2
3

Greece PPE

2
icon: S&D S&D
173

Slovakia S&D

2

Croatia S&D

2

Cyprus S&D

2
3

Latvia S&D

Against (1)

1

Slovenia S&D

Against (1)

1

Lithuania S&D

2

Luxembourg S&D

Against (1)

1

Estonia S&D

Against (1)

1

Malta S&D

3

Czechia S&D

3

Finland S&D

2

Belgium S&D

3

Ireland S&D

Against (1)

1

Netherlands S&D

Against (1)

1

A8-0005/2017 - Mady Delvaux - Am 6=11

2017/02/16 Outcome: -: 476, +: 119, 0: 33
SK HR DK CY LV LT LU EE MT CZ SI FI NL AT IE PL EL HU GB BG BE PT SE IT FR RO ES DE
Total
9
10
10
6
7
10
6
6
6
18
7
12
21
17
9
50
14
15
43
15
19
20
18
55
66
30
49
80
icon: ECR ECR
59

Croatia ECR

For (1)

1

Cyprus ECR

1

Latvia ECR

For (1)

1

Lithuania ECR

1

Czechia ECR

2
2

Netherlands ECR

2

Greece ECR

Against (1)

1

Bulgaria ECR

1

Italy ECR

1

Romania ECR

Against (1)

1
icon: ENF ENF
36

Poland ENF

2

United Kingdom ENF

For (1)

1

Belgium ENF

For (1)

1

Romania ENF

1

Germany ENF

For (1)

1
icon: NI NI
11

Poland NI

Abstain (1)

1

Hungary NI

2

United Kingdom NI

For (1)

Abstain (2)

3

Italy NI

Against (1)

1

France NI

2
icon: EFDD EFDD
19

Lithuania EFDD

For (1)

1

Poland EFDD

1

United Kingdom EFDD

Abstain (1)

1

Sweden EFDD

2

France EFDD

1
icon: Verts/ALE Verts/ALE
45

Denmark Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Latvia Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Lithuania Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Luxembourg Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Estonia Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Slovenia Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Finland Verts/ALE

Against (1)

1

Netherlands Verts/ALE

2

Austria Verts/ALE

2

Hungary Verts/ALE

2

United Kingdom Verts/ALE

Against (4)